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GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

PERSIAN LANGUAGE, 

&c. &c. &c. 



GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

PERSIAN LANGUAGE. 

TO WHICH ARE SUBJOINED, 

SEVERAL DIALOGUES; 

WITH AN 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF THE 

ENGLISH AND PERSIAN TERMS OF GRAMMAR ; 

AND AN 

APPENDIX, 

ON 

THE USE OF ARABIC WORDS. 



BY MEERZA MOHAMMAD IBRAHEEM, 

PROFESSOR OF ARABIC AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES 
-IT THE HON. EAST-INDIA COMPANY'S COLLEGE, HAILKYBURY. 



LONDON: 
W M . H. ALLEN AND CO. 

33oofesdlew to ti>c Honourable Isasstsln&ta ompang, 

7, LEADENHAI.L STREET. 

L841. 



TK 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY RICHARD WATTS, 

PRINTER TO THE HON. EAST-INDIA COMPANY'S COLLEGE, 
HAILEYIURY. 




TO THE HONOURABLE 

THE CHAIRMAN, THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN, 

AND THE 

COURT OF DIRECTORS 

OF THE 

HONOURABLE EAST-INDIA COMPANY, 

&c. &c. &c. 
HONOURABLE SIRS, 

IHE results of the literary labours undertaken by 
your own cherished Servants, in their zeal for the 
well-being of your liberal Institutions, might always 
with propriety be dedicated to your Honourable 
Court; but the munificent patronage which you have 
vouchsafed to the publication of this Volume fully 
warrants me in inscribing it to you, with the warmest 
feelings of gratitude. 

I have the honour to subscribe myself, with the 
greatest respect, 

HONOURABLE SIRS, 

Your most faithful and humble servant, 

MOHAMMAD IBRAHEEM. 



EAST-INDIA COLLEGE, HAILEYBURY, 
September 1841. 



THE 

PREFACE. 



A FOREIGNER, who is under the necessity of addressing the 
natives of a country in their own language, must throw 
himself upon their candid and indulgent criticism. 

However familiar he may have become with their speech, 
for the purpose of daily life whatever pains he may have 
taken to make himself acquainted with the style of their 
standard authors he cannot fail to be aware, that there are 
peculiarities of expression and construction in all languages, 
which those who speak them as their native tongues practise 
unconsciously, but which a stranger can scarcely ever hope 
to command at will. Impressed, deeply, with a true sense of 
my own deficiencies, I therefore, with unfeigned humility, 
solicit the indulgence of my readers to the composition of the 
following pages ; in which, for reasons sufficiently obvious, 
I, a native of Persia, undertake to communicate the elements 
of Persian Grammar to English Students, in an English dress. 
At the same time, I may so far venture to feel confident that 
my meaning will be found to be intelligibly conveyed, as 
the kind supervision of a liberal and benevolent friend has 
removed the likelihood of any material mistakes. 

Nor is it only to the outward garb that this beneficial 
assistance has been directed : the same masterly hand has 
contributed to improve the substance : and it is with senti- 
ments of pride and gratitude, that I acknowledge the aid I 
have received, throughout the whole of my work, from the ob- 
servations of that unrivalled Persian Scholar, and enlightened 



PREFACE. 

Patron of Persian Literature, NEIL BENJAMIN EDMONSTONE, 
Esq. ; of whom, I am most grieved to state, the hand of 
Death has since bereaved me ; and to whose honoured memory 
I now feel it my duty to pay this humble tribute, with extreme 
reverence and deep sorrow ! ! 

Encouraged by such approbation and aid, I therefore sub- 
mit this volume to the Students of the Persian Language ; 
trusting they will find it sufficiently accurate and serviceable ; 
and will derive from it facilities for the attainment of the 
language, which they have hitherto, it is to be apprehended, 
but imperfectly enjoyed. 

No native of any Eastern country has hitherto attempted 
to exhibit the structure, genius, and idiomatic phraseology of 
his own language, through the medium of any European 
dialect. I have, nevertheless, been induced, by the peculiar 
circumstances of my position in this country, to venture on 
that arduous undertaking. It happened, that almost imme- 
diately after my arrival in England I had the honour of an 
appointment at the East-India College. At that time I was 
an entire stranger to the English tongue. I was utterly un- 
able to use it, either for the purposes of reading or of conver- 
sation. My first duty therefore, as a Teacher of Persian, 
was to remedy this defect, by making myself, as speedily as 
possible, familiar with the native language of my pupils. 
With this view, I had recourse to the Elementary Works 
composed by the English Orientalists, for the express purpose 
of teaching Persian to English Students ; in order that, by 
reversing the process, I might become a learner of English, 
through their instructions in my own tongue. At the same 
time, I gladly availed myself of the advantages afforded me by 
daily intercourse and conversation with the Members of that 
Learned Body among whom I had the good fortune to be 



PREFACE. Ill 

placed : and, by a persevering use of these resources, I soon 
had the satisfaction to find myself making rapid progress 
towards the attainment of my object. 

In the course, however, of my studies, and especially of 
my instructions now carried on for a period of above fourteen 
years I have had frequent reasons to think that the existing 
system of teaching might be improved, and that a more 
idiomatic and living character might be given to its Rules and 
Principles. 

It must not however be imagined, that this statement is 
offered with the slightest intention to underrate the labours, 
or disparage the acquirements, of the Orientalists who have 
preceded me. 

The grammatical works of these distinguished Scholars 
have undoubtedly been most valuable instruments for the 
acquisition of an elementary knowledge of the Persian lan- 
guage. They contain, indeed, as much information as can 
well be derived from the study of literary composition in 
that language ; but still, they are wholly insufficient for the 
purpose of imparting to the learner any competent know- 
ledge of its colloquial phraseology and idiom, its peculiar turns of 
expression, and its various refinements and niceties of diction. 

The only extant Persian Grammars are those compiled by 
European Authors ; few of whom have ever even visited the 
people whose language they undertake to teach ; and none of 
whom have possessed, or could have the means of acquiring, 
a complete mastery of it, in all its various uses, literary, 
technical, and colloquial. Without these, however, a writer 
on Grammar must be necessarily and exclusively dependent 
upon the resources of prosaic and poetical composition. His 
work must consequently be, in some respects, erroneous, and 



\ 



IV PRKFACE. 

in very many points essentially defective. To supply those 
wants, and to rectify these defects, are the objects which 
I have principally in view, in the composition of the following 
work. I seek to teach the Persian of Persians; not the Persian 
only of books. At the same time, I fully acknowledge the 
value of the efforts made by my learned predecessors : and 
if I should be found in any degree to have advanced beyond 
them, it will, in part, be owing to the instruction I have 
derived both from their merits and their failures ; and not 
merely to the accidental circumstance, that Persian is my 
native speech. 

In the composition of my Grammar, I have not been 
dependent upon the works of others, but I have endeavoured 
to draw materials from my own resources. The examples 
and illustrations which have been cited throughout this work 
will, therefore, be found to consist of such idiomatic expres- 
sions as are used, in their daily intercourse, by those classes of 
native Persians who speak the language in its greatest purity. 

In my efforts, however, I have not sought to supersede, 
but to assist, the philological labours of others. Their 
works are not rendered less useful by mine ; and while I 
attempt to correct what appears to me to be erroneous, 
I endeavour to supply what I consider is deficient in them. 
I have framed this Grammar chiefly for the use of beginners, 
to whom the desultory arrangement and the multifarious and 
complicated rules of the Grammars of the English Authors 
must present a discouraging obstacle. I do not profess to 
exhibit a complete Grammar of my language, in all its extended 
branches and departments : my purpose is, to give a compen- 
dium of its structure, its idiom and phraseology, by plain rules 
and simple illustrations. Although much of what is comprised 
in European works is, for that reason, omitted in this 



PREFACE. V 

Grammar, much also is contained in it that is not to be found 
in any other; as will appear, especially, on a reference to the 
various heads of Pronouns, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Inter- 
jections, Adverbs, Diminutive Nouns, and Particles, the for- 
mation of Compound Epithets, &c. &c. And I have endea- 
voured to lay down a more correct and simple system of 
Verbs and their Conjugations than is adopted in the works 
of my European predecessors. 

The important branch of Syntax instead of consisting, as 
in the other Persian Grammars, of a series of elaborate and 
not always correct rules, exemplified chiefly by quotations 
from books of Poetry, some of which are almost obsolete is 
explained and illustrated in a succession of Dialogues, eight 
in number, composed for the occasion. The parties chiefly 
conversing are supposed to be an English Gentleman, who 
has acquired a competent knowledge of the language of 
Persia, and is travelling in that country for improvement; 
and a native Persian friend, who has also resided long 
enough in England to be able to converse with facility in 
English. The former occasionally makes mistakes, which the 
latter corrects ; and an opportunity is thus afforded of exem- 
plifying some of the Rules of Syntax, in a simple, practical, 
and attractive manner ; while, at the same time, the subjects 
of the several antecedent chapters of the Grammar are illus- 
trated by examples introduced into the Dialogues, and speci- 
fically referred to as those examples occur ; accompanied also 
with many explanatory Notes. 

My chief object, in the course of these Dialogues, has been 
to exhibit, to the best of my ability, the genuine idiom and 
the colloquial and literary phraseology of the language, on 
a great variety of subjects : and the discussion of those 
subjects has been conducted with a view to afford as ample 



VI PREFACE 

and varied a display as possible of national sentiments and 
manners, and thus to furnish the Student both with instruc- 
tion and amusement. They are accompanied with an 
English Translation, as literal as the idiom will admit : and 
the great difference between the idioms and modes of ex- 
pression of the two languages are thus advantageously exhi- 
bited. The Vowel or Diacritical Points have been used 
throughout the work, in order to afford the Student the 
facility of pronouncing the Persian words correctly. A List 
also has been subjoined, in which the Student will find all the 
English and Persian Terms of Grammar alphabetically ar- 
ranged, in parallel columns ; and in an Appendix, the Ex- 
planation, the various Forms or Measures, with proper 
Examples, of all the Arabic words which are of most frequent 
occurrence in the Persian language. 



EAST-INDIA COLLEGE, HAILEYBURY, 

September, 1841. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



THE PREFACE ... p. i. vi. 

Page, 

Of the ALPHABET . i 4 

Of VOWELS 5 g 

Of Spelling and Forming Words 7 9 

Of the NUMERALS 10 13 

Of Single Significant Words 13 21 

Of NOUNS 22 

Of the Cases 22 24 

Of the Plurals 25 28 

Of ADJECTIVES 29 30 

Of Comparison 30 32 

Of DEFINITE and INDEFINITE NOUNS 32 34 

Of PRONOUNS 34 35 

The Reciprocal ditto 35 

The Possessive ditto 36 37 

Of Demonstrative ditto 37 38 

Of Relative ditto 3940 

Of Interrogative ditto 40 43 

Of the PERSIAN VERBS 43 47 

Of the Auxiliary Verbs 47 60 

Of the Subjunctive and Potential Moods . . . 61 67 

Of the Optative Mood 6768 

Of Negative Verbs 68 69 

Of the Passive Voice 69 71 

Of Causal Verbs 7281 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pages 

Of Interrogative Verbs gj 94 

Of Compound Verbs 85 98 

Alphabetical Series of Verbal Nouns, or Simple Per- 
sian Infinitives, with their respective Imperatives, 98 102 
Of COMPOUND ADJECTIVES &c. the Nature of their 

Composition 103 106 

Of NOUNS compounded with PARTICLES .... 107 

Of Names of Agents 108 

Of NOUNS of PLACE 108 111 

Of PREPOSITIONS Ill 112 

Of CONJUNCTIONS 113116 

Of INTERJECTIONS, and EXCLAMATIONS .... 117 119 

Of ADVERBS 119 127 

Of DIMINUTIVE NOUNS 127 128 

Of DIMINUTIVE PARTICLES 129 132 

Dialogue, in exemplification 132 136 

Of SYNTAX 137 

Dissertation on Syntax 137 141 

Dialogue 1 141144 

Dialogue II 144152 

Dialogue III 152162 

Dialogue IV 162176 

Dialogue V 176190 

Dialogue VI 190198 

Dialogue VII 198 21-? 

Dialogue VIII 212226 



Alphabetical List of the ENGLISH and PERSIAN TERMS 

of GRAMMAR . 227-239 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX. 
ON THE USE OF THE ARABIC WORDS . . . P. 241. 

Pages 

Verbal Nouns of Triliteral Radical Verbs .... 242 244 

Increased Triliterals 244 246 

Verbal Nouns of Radical and Increased Quadriliteral 

Verbs 246 

Forms and Examples of Attributives, or Nouns of 

Excess 246248 

Forms and Examples of the Irregular Participle Pas- 
sives 248 249 

Forms and Examples of Attributives, or Derivative 

Nouns, &c. &c 250252 

Nouns of Superiority 252 

Nouns of Instrument 253 

Nouns of Time and Place 253 254 

Irregular Feminines 254 256 

The Arabic Plurals 256 

Plurals of Paucity 258260 

Plurals of Multitude 260266 

Plural of Plurals 267, 268 



" THE Learner is supposed to be acquainted with the 
" common terms of Grammar, and to know that the 
" Persians write their characters from the right-hand to 
" the left." 

SIR WILLIAM JONES. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



OF THE ALPHABET. 

1. _LHE Persian Alphabet, properly, consists of Twenty- 
four Letters ; of which, Twenty are common to the Persians 
and the Arabs : but, in consequence of the introduction of so 
many Arabic words into the Persian Language, Eight more 
Letters, peculiar to Arabic, have been incorporated with the 
Persian Alphabet; which at present consists, therefore, of 
Thirty-two Letters. 

2. These Letters, when written singly, appear as follows : 

t, .. \ 

S T P B A 

se te pe be alef 



Ch J 

che jeem 



J (French) Z 

je ze 



R 


Z 


D 


Kh 


H 


re 


zaul 


daitl 


khe 


he 








(guttural, hard, as 
the German CA) 





Z 

zaw 



T 

taw 



K 

kauf 



Z 

zaud 



Ck 
ckauf 

(guttural, hard) 



S 

saud 



sh 
sheen 



Gh 
ghain 

(guttural softly) 



S 

seen 

L 

A 

ain 



V 

vawve 



N 

noon 



< r 

M 

meem 



L 

lawm 



G 
gauf 



L$ 

Y 

ye 



H 

he 



2 (T) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

3. In composition, some of these letters undergo certain 
modifications merely in form, and assume somewhat different 
appearances. But the difference is very trifling; as they 
never lose their original forms so entirely as not to be 
recognised by the beginner. 

Accordingly, at the beginning of a word they appear thus : 



~ 3 : J -T J \ 







In the middle of a word, they appear thus : 



, . 
/ -^ 

A 



* a * *<ft -A -. ';'; 

(/ J V -s 
J 4 ' A * ^ ^ f ^~ * 



And at the end of a word, they appear thus : 



o J w r 

4. When the letters \ and \ come together, if the former 
precedes the latter, they are written thus, X, or X, or ^ . 
The compound name of Laum-Alef, which of course ex- 
presses its own meaning, has been given to this combination ; 
and it is sounded as it is written, " Law." 

5. The letter ], at the end of a word, is sometimes 
written thus * , which then goes by the Arabic name Hamzah. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (H 3 

It has other uses as well, which shall be duly explained 
hereafter. 

6. Double letters occur in Persian ; but to avoid the 
necessity of writing a letter twice over, the Persians have 
likewise adopted the Arabic mark " Tashdeed, " strengthener," 
which is placed over the letter intended to be double. 

7. When two Alefs come together in the same word, 
instead of using the mark " Tashdeed, as in the case of other 
double letters, this mark ~~ is placed over the letter, thus, \ . 
This is also borrowed from Arabic ; and it goes by the name 
of Madda, signifying " to draw out " or " to prolong ;" and 
the \ over which it is placed, is then sounded aw, as in the 
words " paw," " jaw," &c. The Madda " is, in fact, the 
second \ horizontally placed over the other. It is sometimes, 
however, placed parallel to, but somewhat shorter than, the 
other, thus \' : and it answers the same purpose. The 
Madda is only used when the \ appears at the beginning of a 
word, as, without this mark, there, it is always short by 
position ; as it is always long in the middle, or at the end 
of a word, by position likewise. 

8. This Arabic mark " also is sometimes placed above a 
consonant, to shew that the syllable ends with it : it is called 
Jazm, i.e. " to conclude," or " to fix." 

9. The following eight letters appear only in words purely 
or originally Arabic ; and in many instances will be doubly 
useful to a beginner, inasmuch as they point out to him the 
Arabian origin of the words in which they occur. They are 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



10. Every letter (of a word) should be connected with 
that which follows it ; except these seven, 

\. X " ' 

J / J / J / J 



OF THE PRONUNCIATION OF. THE ARABIC LETTERS. 

11. The beginner cannot fail to observe, that many of 
the letters, as they are set down in the order of the alphabet, 
have the same sounds, as 



LT 

which have been marked as S, Z, T, A, and H ; and he 
may naturally wonder at this redundancy. In fact, there is 
no actual redundancy. Eight of these letters, as already 
stated (see p. 3), are peculiar to the Arabic, and are sounded 
in that language very differently from what they are in 
Persian. They have generally sounds very harsh and rough ; 
some very difficult, and others almost impossible for an 
English beginner to imitate. Let him be consoled, however, 
with the assurance, that an exact imitation of these sounds is 
not only unnecessary, but absolutely useless to a reader of 
the Persian language ; inasmuch as the Persians themselves, 
in speaking and reading their native tongue, when they come 
to an Arabic word in which any of those letters occur, 
never attempt to pronounce them as the Arabs ; except, 
perhaps, the letter , which is pronounced with a stronger 
aspirate than the & : they pronounce them merely like as 
many Persian letters as come the nearest in point of sound 
to them, exactly as I have set them down in the order of 
the alphabet. (See the Alphabet, p. 1 .) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. o 5 

OF VOWELS. 

12. These thirty-two letters are all consonants ; with the 
exception of <_" \ j which serve also as long vowels ; but 
the . is used b jth as a long and short vowel. When short, 
it answers to the vowel u in English, as in the words "put," 
"push," &c. ; and when long, it answers to oo, as in the 
word " boot," or to u, as in the word " brute." The \ is 
long ; and it corresponds with " au," as in the word " cause "; 
or with "aw," as in the word "paw." The L is also always 
long; and answers to " ee," as in the word "beef"; or to 
"ea," as in the word "beat".* 

13. The short vowels are expressed by three small 
marks ; of which, one is placed above the consonant, thus 
^ bd, and answers to the short a in English, as in the 
word "bat"; one below the consonant, thus j_> pe, and 
answers to the short e, as in the word " pet"; and the 
third is somewhat in the front above the consonant, thus 
l^H shu, and answers to the u as pronounced in the word 
"bull": they are called by the Persians y^ zabar, ?> 

seer, and AL? . P ees h respectively, signifying " above," 

" below," and " the front "; each of them expressing its own 
peculiar position with respect to the consonant. 



The Indians use the vowel ^ sometimes like ea, as in the word "bear"; 
and the vowel . like oa, as in the word "boat"; to which . and ^ they 

->">? *>' 

have given the appellation of J^^ -- Maj/tool, "obscure," in contradistinc- 
tion to the other instances in which they are used as long vowels, when they 

D O?-)x 

are called i__9.ji Maaroof, distinct." This distinction, however, is not 
known among the modern Persians. 



6 0) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



14. These short vowels are sometimes doubled thus " * : 
they have still the same power ; but with this addition, 
that they are sounded as if the syllable ended with a ^. ; 

thus, *, ran, o ten, "i dun. 
J * 

15. Although these double marks are purely and pecu- 
liarly Arabic, and the Persians never use them ; yet, as 
they often occur in Arabic passages and quotations, with 
which a Persian student must frequently meet in the course 
of his studies, I thought they might as well be explained 
here. Their collective name (in Arabic of course) is JyJJ 
Tamceen, signifying " to pronounce or produce the sound 
of the letter " ; and, separately, they go by the names 

**" - 



J JVasft, . Jarr, and i. Rafa, respectively, signifying 
the same as the short vowels in Persian. 

16. Let it be remarked here, that when the letter . in 
the middle of a word precedes the letter \, it loses its 
sound altogether in some instances ; as in the words 

s 1 

^ L v>_i\,^ " to sleep," ^.^A.^ " to wish," &c., which are 
pronounced khaubeedan, khaustan, &c. : in the same manner, 

o 

when it precedes the letter ^J, as in the word ,jty*> " se lf" 
or " relation," which is pronounced kheesh. And the \ in 
the middle of a word is used sometimes as a consonant ; in 

which case the * hamzah is placed over it, to distinguish it 

-*' 
from the vowel \i as, L\J ta-ammull, "reflection." 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



OF SPELLING AND FORMING WORDS. 



(v) 7 



17. The beginner can have no difficulty now, in spelling 
and pronouncing any short Persian words, properly marked 
with the vowel-points. I advise him, however, to begin by pro- 
nouncing single letters ; appreciating duly the sound of each 
consonant, and the power of the vowels, before he attempts 
the compounds : so let him commence as follows : 

X'X'XXX X" X f * 

>. .. \ 

_ ,7- _ L_> <__> < 1 ) 

C \L ^ <~ 

khd hd chd jd sd td pa bd a 



U" J J J 

Qi}p ffa ip iv p 0*0 y fl n ft 

t>/*C <>G /C (O C I fj ~l' UjVv 



o 

s 



i C. k> ^ 

fu ghe e ze te ze se 



' > > ! 9 9 

j u r_ J ^ *=>_ (3 

vu nu mu Lu ff^ leu CKU 

( A 

yu hu 

*. *.. * \ 

C t - C. ^ 

hdn chdn idn sdn tan ndn ban an 



u~ ^ J j j r 

* ^ ? ? , ^ 

*/ie *e jew ^e re s'ew (/e Maw 



J ^ d ^ Ji So 

v_ v^ ^ ,> 

c^wn y^w gAw 6mz zen ten zen sen 



yun hun nun nun mun lun kun. 



8 (*) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

18. COMPOUNDS OF TWO LETTERS. 

O 1 -I , Ox ~> 



beb eb jab tab bub 



haba hub nub dub heb 



ban leta kela bata mata shata 



> rf )_* 

huva fema za.lt rad jasa has 



V V > 

jaw baw bar tel sa-a muna 

> x Ox T x Ox 

"f* ** M V^ 

/a*/i as ar /flic &aw 

* > ~> ' 

Me 600 koo slier now yaw 

o x Of *- 

iaj /j*^ \ V Vo .J 

na< 6zw at aic waw j/ar 

Ox O Ox O O ? 

^ x ^^ ^ ^^^ 

fte^/j jaw deh ez suba 



j> ir^ U"* 5 <-i (** 

-^ * ..I 

tasha sas nee ckem nach 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ) 9 



i* > *s* J 

Ian leb haw paj yuta fee 

O Ox 1 x x *) >> 

(** f (< c 'j if*' $ 

\ ' V " ' 

hem haj may reka ghesh loo 



i , > f 

OO 



mugh sheda las bak bad hun 



tXJ 



e* 

/wda zuka suba sul jay sugh 



~> f 
^c. 



L^ } } 

sema kush lur lur oz eked 



> - 
oJ 



goo yoo pesa hule befu nadu 



zay tur ghema shaw s/iuva keya 

19. The sounds of the consonants, and the power of 
the vowels, (according to the examples already given), being 
perfectly regular and uniform in Persian, the beginner is 
now enabled, by the perusal of the preceding pages, to com- 
bine as many letters as he pleases together, and, by supply- 
ing them with the vowels as they are marked, form them 
into words of as many syllables as he likes. He will do 
well now to store his memory with as many Persian words as 
he can, out of those which I shall set down for him, before 
he begins to learn the parts of speech and the rules for the 
formation of sentences. Let him first learn the Persian 
numerals. 



10 (I.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

OF THE NUMERALS. 

20. Twenty-eight of the thirty-two letters of the Alphabet 
are expressed in eight words ; thus : 



sd-ajds kalaman Hut-tee Hav-vaz Abjad 



V 

zazegh sakh-khez Ckarashat 

21. These letters have their numerical values ; and, taking 
the order in which they are now arranged, the first nine, 
that is, from \ to \s , are the units ; the second nine, that 
is, from c? to ,^0 , are the tens ; the third nine, that is, 



from ,j to ]a, are the hundreds ; and the remaining letter c. 
is one thousand. By the combination of these letters, 
according to their values of course, any number may be 
expressed. 

22. The Persians also use figures, which is a much sim- 
pler way of calculating, having only nine units (as the 
English) ; with which, of course, combinations may be found 
indefinitely. These figures are arranged, and calculated, 
from left to right ; thus : 

I r r f- c i v A i i. 

123456789 10 

and they are expressed as follows : 

,1 T, "> ~> , \t ' * ^ 

2O &3 L_*-ljfc OA& ^j^, Jj 

23. The following lines will shew how the numbers are 
formed, both with letters and with figures, as well as how 
they are pronounced in Persian. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( ' ' ) 1 L 



A ^ ^ V 

6 p r r 

5432 



au 



C -> 

A V 



i 

10 9 8 7 



"J X 



O O 



JU 

1 6 if ir ir u 

15 14 13 12 11 



O^ 

] 

^ ^- 

r. M IA |v n 

20 19 18 17 16 



, * s " ' -'-' "' ~" 

/ V^ ^ 

rp rr rr n 

24 23 22 21 



rA rv ri re 

28 27 26 25 



cr H? c 

"J 

rr n r. r^ 

32 31 30 29 

C 2 



12 (If) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



up -* o" 



j>" 

n re rr rr 

36 35 34 33 



P. n TA rv 

40 39 38 37 



44 43 42 41 



yt VC <VC 

Pv Pi Po 

48 47 46 45 



1. A. v. i. e. 

90 80 70 60 50 

>.. P.. r.. r.. 

500 400 300 200 

Ox 0x0, OxOx Ox", x 

i io ^ i 

! 1* " 4 " 

1000 900 800 . 700 


49 

1.. 

100 

> x x 


1. . 

600 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. CO 13 

24. The Persian Ordinals are expressed thus : 



5th 4th 3d 2d 1st 

, . 19? 1,1, If 1 , 1 ! s 



lOth 9th 8th 7th 6th 

1 a ^ 1-> 1 ' ,1 s Iff! If, s 11,1 



15th 14th 13th 12th llth 

O .- O o * -") / O * ^ O " O^x-3^- O ^ x OO 

\. .,.,. v > frb$\ *j ^^O^^si^ A<^cXft-i^ .^^3**J V 

20th *19th 18th 17th 16th 



60th 50th 40th 30th 21st 



^3j^ji O> 

100th 90th 80th 70th 

25. The days of the week are thus named in Persian : 



j 
Wednesday. Tuesday. Monday. Sunday. Saturday. 



or 

Friday. Thursday. 



They are collectively called XxaA *\j\ .e. "the seven days 
of the week." 

OF SINGLE SIGNIFICANT WORDS. 

26. I now proceed to put down a number of words, which, 
as I shall mark them with Vowel-points, as well as place 
under each word its exact meaning in English, will serve the 



14 (IP) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



double purpose of storing the memory of a beginner with a 
good many useful and common words in the Persian lan- 
guage, and of teaching him, at the same time, how to pro- 
nounce them : and, in order to point out the words that are 
of Arabic origin, they shall be distinguished by the letter (A). 
The student is recommended, therefore, to learn and remem- 
ber as many of these words as he can, before he goes any 
further. They will be found very useful hereafter, in the 
course of his study. 



A. CiJio 
Angel. 



sky. 



A. (*V6I 

a Leader in 
Religion. 



A. 



creed. 



Prophet. 



A. 



Religion, 
Faith. 



God. 



Angel. 



brother. 



girl, daughter. 



A. 
paternal aunt. 

o 

bread. 



Hell. 



mother. 



boy, son. 



paternal uncle. 



relation, kindred. 



butter. 



Paradise. 



father. 



offspring, child. 



A. 
grandmother. 



A. 
maternal aunt. 

.J 
meat, flesh. 



Earth. 

5 , 



woman. 



sister. 



A. 



randfather. 



A. 
maternal uncle. 



water. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAK. 



(!o) 15 



grapes. 



fruit. 



A. 



drink. 



A. 



vegetables. 



milk. 



pear. 



apple. 



gardener. fruit-garden. 



A. ur-jf 

M 

chair. 



A. 
room. 



tree. 



house. 



flowers, rose. 



flower-garden. 



A. 
pen. 

O O x- 

A. +> 
candle. 

i - t 



needle. 



paper. 



sealing-wax. 



scssors. 



A. 



book. 



inkstand. 



penknife. 



A. 

^ 

college. 

A. I j 
ink. 



seal, signet. 



master. 

A. a-ils 

student. 



silk. 



pupil. 



thread. 



A. 



lecturer. 



pin. 



A. 

\ ^ 

teacher, 
schoolmaster. 



prayer 



A. 

church, chapel, 
mosque. 



A. 

lecture. 



A. 



lesson. 



A. 



advice. 



A. 

preaching. 



A. 

exhortation. 



A. 
supplication. 



16 (II) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



village. 



city. 



A. 



reproof. council. 



king. 



A. 

-x 

dominion. 



A. 

kingdom. 



hamlet. 



scribe. 



commander-in-chief. commander, 
a prince. 



counsellor. minister. 



soldier. 



A. 

f 

queen 



V 

army. 



A. 
wisdom. 



dust, earth. 



learning. 



wind. 



A. 



science, 
philosophy. 



A. 

knowledge. 



fire. understanding. 



A. 



south. 



A. 



west. 



A. 



east. 



A. 



ar. 



under. 



right. 



v 

left. 



A. 



north. 



table. 



salt. 



v 

below. 

o o 



host. 



upon. 



above. 



guest. table-cloth. 



A. 



basin. 



A. 



vessel. 



eatable. 



A. 



food. 



PKRSIAN GRAMMAR. 



17 



iujr 

calf. 



lamb. 



sheep. 



mule. 



mare. 



horse. 



camel. 



hare. 



fox. 



antelope. buffalo. 



wolf. leopard. 



lion. 



desert. 



forest. 



lawn. 



meadow. 



hawk. pheasant. partridge. 



A. JX 

field. 



sailor. 



"> , o. 



ship. 

o o o / 



V 

sea. 



torrent , river. captain, pilot. 



mountain. 



A. 

\ X 

mate. 



brook. 



stream. 



A. | 
flood, deluge. 



A. 

lightning. 



A. 

> 

thunder. 



hail. 



eye. 



tongue. 



head. 



tooth. 



>J or 
i ~ v 



foot. 



mouth. 



hand. 



ear. 



18 (I A) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



hair. 



thigh. 



face. 



arm. 



finger. 

A. < ftT 

the palm (of the 
hand). 



heart. 



wrist. 



breast. 



shoulder. 



neck. 



knee. 



forehead. 



e 

brain. 



nose. 



beard. 



the lip. 



chin. 



eyebrow. eyelid, eyelash. 



gall-bladder. liver. the lungs. the throat. 



A. 



O xOx Ox P 

&soj &5jj 

a star. nail of the hand the fist, the five bowels, 
or foot. fingers. 



O Oxx-C O O x O 

A. ^uMxt or .-J A. v+3 or 3V/c A. ^* ..+.?.> or<~. 
Mercury. the Moon. the Sun. 



O x ? O^ 

A. (_? r->i- or i i-^- r* A. ^yo or ,' ^J A. 



Jupiter. 



Mars. 



Venus. 



A. I >UU~J A. U-O>^> A., 

warm. the planets. the fixed stars. Saturn. 



5 ?? 



00 






sweet. 



bitter. 



cold. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



19 



slender. 

A. C5j3 
strong. 

00? 

red. 

O O x 


coarse, thick, 
severe. 

thin, lean. 

o 

black. 

O 9 ,> 


fine, nice, oily, rich, 
delicate. 

O Ox O *)9 J? 

s 

fat. stout, thick. 

Ox O O x 
J A. ^ 


white. weak. 

00 x Ox 



iron. 



violet colour. blue. 



yellow. 



copper. 



green. 



A. eBJ or *-MJ A. 

silver. gold. 



OxO Ox Ox OOx OOx 

or A. / ^JJ , A. 



quicksilver. tin. 



lead. 



J\*^ 3^ 


5i y 


u 


a fork. a knife. 


steel. 


brass. 


^ ^ ^ 1 s"> s 





i .. 


TA^SjutfL-X- 1 5oA3 


i.i\aEL3 




X** * y ^^5 * 




. 


napkin. a saucer. 


a cup. 


a plate, 



roasted. 



A. 



fried. sweetmeat or toothpick, 

sweet cake. 



sugar. 



tea. 



tasteless, insipid. raw. cooked or baked. boiled. 



A. 

coffee. 



(too) fast. key. 



A. CW 
delicious. 

O x 

A. 



chain. 



a wateh. 



20 (r.) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



O x 


x 

00 


11? 


ool' 


s 

middling. 


bad. 


good. 


(too) slow. 





o - 


of 


O x 


evening. 


A. ^V* 3 
morning. 


JJ>J 

day. 


night. 


, , , , 


O x 


'i' 


> 


sunset. 


afternoon. 


noontide. 


V 

mid-day. 


x 


JP 


OOF 


O Ox 

A. i^- 9 ^ 


door. 


late. 


quick. 


time. 


carpet. 


gateway. 


O x 

threshold. 




A* 

wall. 


'V\j 


l^ 


ftl5^M.^ 


Ox 


market. 


pillow. 


bedstead. 


bed or pillow. 


1 ? 


A. J& 


O x 

A. P-VLc 


y? 


stocking. 


shoe. 


goods. 


shop. 


x 


A. V>j 


O Ox 


O F 


shirt. 


coat 


turban. 


hat or cap. 


o x 7,~ 


A ^ 


O x 
&V\Ah 


O O x 


sash, belt. 


shawl. 


close. 


trowsers. 


F 


i />'// 


x 


' x- 



fire-wood. 



court. 



A. 
corn. 



dog. 



crown. 



beggar. 



A. 



rattle. 



snuffers. candlestick. 



A. 



throne. 



A. 



purse. 



stick. 



friend. 



enemy. 



quadruped. bam. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(M) 21 



light. hog (wild or tame). 


mouse. 


cat. 


x x 

* ~ -... 

A. {J^J^ ft'' 1 "-.*" 1 


M- >\ 




LLX>Vj 


pond. glass or bottle. 


looking-glass. 


dark. 


X ^ 


3 U 


O x 

A. \=0 


medicine. fish. 


goose. 


duck. 


. x X 


. ' 


O Ox 


A. li5 A. j& 


A. 1.^ 


A. 1 -OoJb 


barber. druggist. 


surgeon. 


physician. 


Ox O ^ 


Ul ^ 


O x 


A. ^sC^- A. j\jJ 


A. J^AJ 


A. * -*^ 


tailor. draper. 


grocer. 


bath. 


A. jWXC- A. ^- V^ 


A. jUJk. 


A. ^1 


oilman. cook. 


baker. 


saddler. 


.0 ^x 


O ^ x 


> .' 


A. r^**J A. Wjk 

weaver. turner. 


carpenter. 


pedlar. 


blacksmith. shoemaker. 


dyer. 


butcher. 


A. liJ&L A. &J 


A. i\^S 


A. k-jVs? 2 


engraver. confectioner. 


printer. 


bookbinder. 


_ x x 


^ u,X 


. - 


A. 3\JwO A. p\-+*>> 


A. f^AJ 


A. *_S\j*3 


hunter. chandler. 


painter. 


banker or 
money-changer. 


A. jJ3 A. v_jit 

horse &c. or corn-chandler, 
cattle dealer. 


wine-merchant. 


A. ^ 
husbandman. 


O * x O w x 


O y, X 


T . X 


A. (JV5j A. JV?" 


A. jVy 


\t j)*Jb 


a dancer. a porter. 


rice-merchant: 


cotton-carder. 



A. 



a diver. 



PERSIAN GKAMMAR. 



OF NOUNS. 



27. The form and construction of the Persian Nouns are 
extremely simple and regular : there are no varieties of 
" Declension," or of " Articles " ; nor is there any difference 
of termination, to mark the Gender, either in Substantives or 
Adjectives. All inanimate things are neuter : rational beings 

00,. 

have different names to distinguish the sexes ; as, ^ " man," 

O s "is O^O f 

^j "woman," ^j "boy,"y^J "girl,"&c. ; and animals have 
either the Adjectives, j " male," and s^U " female," affixed 

Is O 

or prefixed to them, to mark their genders ; as, jj* "a lion," 

s 

ajU^ " a lioness " ; $ soU " a cow," j^> " a bull " ; or, in 

00 

some cases, they have also their proper names ; as, ^/-x* 
"an ewe," f "a ram," ^l)/ "a horse," ^^U "a mare," 
JJj/- "a cock," J,U*U "a hen," &c. 

OF THE CASES. 

28. The Cases are decided by certain Particles, prefixed 
or affixed to the Noun : the Nominative never, and the 
Genitive but seldom, stands in need of such addition : the 
Dative is obtained by prefixing the syllable t_-> to the Noun ; 
and the Accusative, by affixing the particle I, ; though some- 
times it is affixed to the Dative as well ; in which case, of 
course, no prefix is used. The Ablative Case is formed by 
placing the Particle jl, and the Vocative by placing the 

o , 

Particle J, before the Noun. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(IT) 23 



EXAMPLES. 



O x 

J* 



A Father." 



N.&G. ,Jo the father. 

> V 

X 
O X 

D. ^joj to the father. 

Ox x 

Ac. l^jo the father. 



V. 



Ab. y ^' from the father. 

Ox O x 



O father ! 



N. & G. 



A Brother." 

t the brother. 
to the brother. 
t ' le brother. 



D. 

Ac. 

Ox 

Ab. j^jtj* f rom the brother. 

Ox O" 

V. j O]j> tjl O brother ! 



A Boy." 

N. & G. j**j the boy. 

i, 
D. ^*jo to the boy. 

s^ 

O^ 

Ac. J;/ 1 *^ ^ e ^y- 

x 

Ox ' 

Ab. j*"^;' fi" om ^e boy. 

s 
Ox Ox 

V. ^ ,_jl O boy ! 



" A Girl." 

O^O f 

N. & G. ^ii-J the girl. 

Ox ? 

D. Ji&-&> to the girl. 

OxO f 

Ac. Jir**^ the girl. 

OxO fOx 

Ab. jAi-J;! from the girl. 

0,0 F Tx 



V. 



O girl! 



REMARKS ON A FEW EXCEPTIONS. 

29. The above rules are quite regular ; and general enough 
for a beginner to be always on the safe side, if he observes 
them in the formation of the different Cases of any Persian 
Substantive or Adjective, Noun or Pronoun : but, at the 
same time, he will do well to peruse the following remarks, 
and to commit as many of them as he can to memory : they 
will be of great use to him in the course of his studies. 

30. A Noun may be put in the Dative Case by affixing 
the Particle \j instead of placing the > before it ; as, for 



24 (TP) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



i 

instance, ..jjj^^ou " I saw the boy," or J^^j " I spoke to 

o^ 

the boy"; the Noun j^ having the affix 1, in both the 
Accusative and Dative Cases : but when the Particle c_> is 
prefixed, the Noun is always in the Dative Case, and never 
in the Accusative. 

31. When the Accusative is used indefinitely, the Particle 

->s f O ' 

J, is altogether omitted ; as, ^Jo-iy ( _ r <. " I drank wine," in- 
stead of *tU-J>y l " I drank the wine." 



32. A Noun may also be put in the Vocative Case by 

o ,. 

affixing the long I , instead of prefixing the Particle J ; but 
this form generally implies supplication, entreaty, or some 

"> OxTx / 1"), 

such emphatic address ; as, }$<*j)j> " the Lord," \fajjj> 
" O Lord ! " slwlj " the king," liltol " O king ! " ^LIJ J " a 
friend," ULy "O friend!" 

33. When two Nouns come together in Persian, in some 
instances, the short vowel (') J^f is placed under the last 
letter of the preceding Noun : this takes place when one 

VO ." ,- s 

Noun governs another, as in the Genitive Case ; as, ^i^j^Jo 
" the girl's father," or " the father of the girl." Here we 
see the vowel (') placed under (,). the last letter of the 

Ox ^ 0x0 f 

Noun j Jo , which precedes and governs the other Noun j^t 
in the Genitive : but if this letter happen to be a quiescent , 
or a ,_y, instead of placing the (') under it, the short 
Alef ("*) or the Hamzah is placed over it, and the \ and ^, 
so accented, are, in both instances, pronounced "ye"; as, 

' JxOx 1,, s, 

the servant of God"; ^Jo <uLr^ "the father's house"; 
the fish of the sea"; &c. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( rc ) 25 

34. Should the last letter be an ) , as Ls- " place," or j , as 
" fragrance," the letter ,_$ either with the (') under it, or 
with the () over it is added to the end of the word ; as, 

Ox x 'J-'x S O ? O 9 f 

^jo^U- or^Jo^U- "the place of the father," tj&jrjj or J^usy 
" the fragrance of the rose." The latter form, however, is 
the most common of the two. 

35. If the preceding Noun, however, be a part of the fol- 

? O o ^ 

lowing one, as itfyjj&Aw "a sword of steel," the Genitive 

^s 

may be obtained by placing the Particle j] before the second 
Noun ; but in such instances, the preceding Noun should be 

made definite, either by adding the ^ of unity to the end of 

) ?->s i "> , 

it, or placing a Numeral before it ; as, 4)Ji)|^A4U4< " o sword 

J>->x 1 1 ' f 

of steel," or Slj>j\j^L*^ "two swords of steel," i.e. swords 
made out of the steel. 

OF THE PLURALS. 

36. In Persian, Rational beings, whether masculine or 
feminine, form their Plurals by adding ^T (awn) to the 

f>' 1 "V T^ 

Singular; as, ^ " a man," ^b^ " men"; ^ " a woman," 

o , 

Jjj " women ": Inanimate things, by adding la (haw) ; as, 

OP IP 

J^" a flower," l^" flowers": and Animals, either by adding 
y/f, as in the case of rational beings, or IA, as in that of 

OT> OOx O^ 

inanimate things; as, <__-.! "a horse," JjuJ or l^u,l "horses." 
It depends upon the taste and the choice of the judicious 
writer which to prefer, as being more suitable to the occa- 
sion ; though I may safely recommend the learner always to 
prefer the la in all prose writings, as is generally done by 
the Persian writers themselves ; but in poetry, the Muses 

o o ., 

are the best instructors. The celebrated bard ^yJ^ (Sddy) 
himself has yielded to their authority, and sacrificed at their 



26 (n/ PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

altar : in one instance (but I believe the only one in all his 
writings) he has indeed been compelled, as it were, to form 
the Plural even of an inanimate thing, by adding jT to the 
Singular ; a transgression, of which none but himself 
(though only for once) could venture to be guilty ; and for 
which, nothing but the splendid composition in which it occurs 
could have secured him against the censure of the Learned. 
It occurs in a beautiful couplet, in one of the author's most 
famous poems on the Praises of the Divinity. The couplet 
runs thus : 



I translate it word for word, thus : 

" The foliage of the verdant trees, in the sight of an intelligent being ;" 

" Every leaf is a volume on the knowledge of the Divinity." 

O Ox 

The reader will observe the second word JZa-j** " trees," in the 

O Ox 

couplet just cited, is the Plural of cs^> " a tree," to which, 

'j 

in this instance, ^T, instead of la, has been added by the poet. 

37. When a Noun, the Plural of which may be formed in 
^T, ends in the Singular Number, in I or j, the letter ,_* is? 
for the most part, interposed between such final letter and 
the Particle ^T, in forming the Plural Number; as, 1^ 

Ox *)9 ox *3 ^ . -' 

" a beggar," Jy*r " be gg ars " '> ^. " an evil-speaker," J*jSV* 
"evil-speakers": and those Nouns that end in quiescent * 

o 

form their Plurals in ^ when the * is omitted, except they 
be written separately, which, however, is seldom or never 

Ox 0X0 ^ xx 

the case; as, <ui/ "an angel," J~j> "angels"; <L^ 

> x x' 

" an infant," ^i&s? " infants," which are hardly ever written 

xx 

^-sr or 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(rv) 27 



38. In imitation of the Feminine Plural of Arabic words, 

Q _ 

which is invariably formed by the affix cul, some modern 
writers, of no great authority however, have formed the 

i _ 

Plurals of a few Persian Nouns of the Neuter Gender in cul 

o 

also ; or, if the Singular ends with the quiescent *, in cuU- ; 
as, ^jiy "a favour," tuLijI^ "favours"; &]> "a letter," 

> ' 

cytaEviji " writings." The instances are, luckily, very few ; 
and it is too vulgar to encourage imitation. 



39. The Cases of a Noun in the Plural Number are formed 
in the same manner, and by the same Particles, as in the 
Singular. 



EXAMPLES OF RATIONAL BEINGS. 



SINGULAR. 



V wj 

" A Man." * " A Woman." i "An Infent" 



Men" 



N. &G. 
D. 

Ac. 
Ab. 
V. 



Women" 



PLURAL. 



Infants" 



Uf 

A Beggar." 



" Beggars " 



"Evil-speaker." 



"Evil-speakers" 



E 2 



28 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



40. OF IRRATIONAL BEINGS. 

SINGULAR. 



A Lion. 



" * 1 

A Lioness. 

PLURAL. 



" A Lamb."' " An Antelope." 



N.&G. 



D. 



Ac. \jj^ 

Ox 

or 
Ab. 



V. 



Ox J 



Ox O 



Ox S 



or .... &c. 



Sli 



or .... &c. 



l^jj 
or ... &c. 

XX 

or ... &c. 

xxOx 

or ... &c. 



or ... &c. 



or ^ 

o > 

or ,Jjfc 



or 

o? 



'^ % 

ab or .... I 

r &c. J 

r. ...j 

&c. j 

}\ or ) 

. . . . &c. j 

^1 or . . . .) 
&c. j 



or 

? o 



41. OF INANIMATE THINGS. 



SINGULAR. 



Bread." 

N. & G. liU 
D Lpuo 

Ac. ];lf)l! 

o Ox 

Ab. l^Ujl 
V. 



' The Sun." ! "A House." "ABaU." 



Wine." 



PLURAL. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( r ^ ) 29 

42. In conclusion, let the reader remember, that what has 

been stated with regard to Rational Beings forming their 

- 
Plurals in ^1 , Jj, or J& , refers more strictly to poetry, and 

the higher classes of prose compositions. In the ordinary 
writings of the day, or even in refined conversation, it is by 
no means forbidden (or it is even better) to form all the 
Persian Plurals, of whatever kind, uniformly in la . Nothing 

is more common in conversation, in Persia, than to say 

' Ox ' i '^ 

laj^o " men," l$j; " women," l^s; " children," Wjs " beggars," 

and numerous similar instances of U implying the Plurals 
of both Rational and Irrational Beings. I shall only add, 
that if a foreigner, speaking good Persian, adheres uni- 
formly to the use of the l& , in forming the Plural, he will be 
much nearer the mark than one who attempts to put the 
rigid rules of grammar into practice with regard to the 
Plurals of the three different classes of Nouns ; as I am 
quite sure that the latter will many times oftener appear 
pedantic, than the former will fall into a slight error of idiom. 



OF ADJECTIVES. 

43. The Persian Adjectives, whether of Number or other- 
wise, admit of no variation, but in the degrees of comparison : 
in other respects, they uniformly follow the Substantive, 
without partaking of the changes which the latter may un- 
dergo in Number or Case ; excepting in the Accusative Case, 
when the Particle [> is affixed to the Adjective, instead of 
being affixed to the Substantive ; as will be seen in the fol- 
lowing examples : 

young." j*"old." jlJ>sick." 



30 (!".) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



O f Ox 



O O .<" Ox 



SINGULAR. 

" a good man." 
" to a good man." 
" the good man." 
"from a good man." 
" O good man ! " 

In like manner, 



PLURAL. 
ft 



IIP ox o 



good men." 
i "to good men." 
the good men." 
from the good men." 
O good men ! " 



a horse," 

Ox 

&c. 



44. Simple Adjectives are frequently used in the Plural, to 

0^ Ox 

express qualified Substantives ; as, ^j*- " good men," ^Ija 
"bad men"; d l;)^ " youths," ^l^L " old men"; J,j;Ul 
" sick persons ; but these Plurals (which, be it remembered, 

O _ 

must always be formed in ^1) invariably signify Rational 
Beings, and, chiefly, those of the Masculine Gender. But 
when Compound Adjectives are thus used as Qualified Sub- 

o 

stantives (though forming their Plurals in ^ I ), they are not 
confined to any particular Gender : they may be either 
Masculine or Feminine, as the expression itself may indicate ; 

xO 

as, jj]/^ " the ravishers of hearts " ; which is evidently 

O x_ O 

intended to be Feminine ; ^1^1 JJ " the bold -hearted," 

O x O x O 

" heroes," which is obviously Masculine ; and ^LCL*^ Jj 
" the afflicted in heart," which may belong to either Gender. 



OF COMPARISON. 

45. There are two Particles of Comparison in Persian, 

Ox O x O, 

J> and ^Ji. The Positive is made Comparative by affixing y, 

Ox O Ox~> 

and Superlative by adding ^ ; as, A> " well," ^I# " better"; 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (1*1) 31 






t "best"; Jo "bad," J> " worse," " worst "; 

young," ^Jjf " younger," ^Jj* " youngest"; &c. 
The Particle j] , in Persian, is an equivalent to " than " 
expressed in English after a Comparative ; with this diffe- 
rence only, that in Persian it may be expressed either after 

O s 'V'VOOx O^ 

or before the Comparative; as, ^jUjl^i'^I^^Jj "the father 
(is) younger than the mother"; which may also be expressed, 



The following are a few more Examples : 

[N. B. The reader will observe, that, in all the following 
sentences, no Verbs have been employed : the reason of 
the omission is, that the reader being supposed to be as yet 
unacquainted with the Persian Verbs, I did not like to 
introduce any, before he had received instructions on the 
subject. He can place any verb he pleases (as soon as he 
has learned the Verbs) at the end of each of these sen- 
tences, to make them complete.] 



COMPARATIVE. 

Ox O 



O O' x Ox O 



/ 

_) C5ju jl k._A5S Book (i.e. reading) (is) better than play. 

^ s 

O x,0 Ox O 

J * j> (^ l5o\ j\ 4Xx& India (is) warmer than England. 

OxO O^OxO^ 

J ,)-fcW . JjK^O The father (was) more ignorant than the son. 

x Ox O . -- O -; 

'^ r> 2>\J\ (^u-JXjl England (became) more populous than Russia. 

Ox Ox Ox O ' ^, 

y* \ J tiJjlj ijUj Women (are) more delicate than men. 
Persian (is not) easier than Arabic. 
Friends (are not) kinder than relations. 



O x x Ox Ox O 



OxOxO 



32 (IT) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

SUPERLATIVE. 

God (is) the best of helpers. 
Fidelity (is) the best of qualities. 
Knowledge (is) the best of treasures. 
The dog (is) the most affectionate of animals. 
Avarice (is) the worst of vices. 
The sweetest of fruits (is) the grape. 
p 5.3 (^)V6\j5 ^jJ oo The worst of crimes (is) falsehood. 

46. OF DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE NOUNS. 

The Persian Nouns are for the most part generic, and 

OO, O, " O, 

Definite in their significations. For instance, ^, ^j, s--^' > 

O 

c_>Uy, "man," "woman," "horse," "book": each of these 
Nouns, as it now stands by itself, signifies its own kind in 
general ; and in composition, when used in this form, each 
would signify a particular one, or, if used in the plural, a 
particular collection of its kind ; as in English would be ex- 
pressed, " the man," " the woman," &c. 

47. These Nouns may be made Indefinite, or, to express 

O O,. J 

unity by adding the letter ^ ; termed ^ou'^b , the indefinite 

0,0, s 00,0,00,0 

^ ; or uyJsB-j^fU, that of unity ; as, i^^/e, i^j, oy'? <^-^ ' > 
"a certain man," "a certain woman," &c. If the Noun, 

o,, 

however, ends in the quiescent * , as me " an infant," 

instead of adding the ^ , the Hamzah (* ) is placed over the t, ; 

f , , 

as, &^ and pronounced " bacha-ee," "a certain infant." 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (T) 33 

48. Abstract Nouns are formed in the same manner ; as, 

OO f IP x 

" a friend," J^jJ " friendship," ^^ " manliness," 
&c. An Abstract Noun is easily distinguished from an Inde- 
finite Noun, when properly pronounced. In an Indefinite 
Noun, the accent is placed on the last syllable but one ; that 

Ox 1 ? O Ox O ** 

is, upon^c, and upon ^, in the words ^jdj* and <_*y : and 
in the other instance, it is placed on the last syllable ; that 

o o 

is, upon j_yj and jj in the same words ; or upon Li and jt> in 
the word ^Lwlj "a certain king or sovereignty": and, to 
distinguish them in writing, it is better always to place the 

Hamzah (*) over the final ^ in the Abstract Nouns; thus, 
t o t o 

t.sj^i " idleness," ^jl^* " entertainment," &c. The quies- 
cent * is changed for the letter tL/ in Abstract Nouns, instead 
of placing the * over it, as in Indefinite Nouns; thus, 

xx ^xOx 

infancy," ^Jjjn "foolery," &c. 



49. Another use of this ^ at the end of a Noun, is to 

o o 

denote connection or relation ; as, t^]/^ tul>- " Haufez (the 

O Ox x 

Poet) of Shiraz"; ^jljoo^lJ; "the women of Bagdad." 
In this case, the accent is placed on the last syllable, that is, 

O O O o O Ox 

upon ^g) and ^ in ^[^ and ^i)b*}, without the Hamzah 
(') when they are used as Adjectives, as in the above 
instance : but when such Nouns are used as Substantives, the 
* (Hamzah) is interposed between the last letter of the Noun 
(which must have the (') jj under it) and the final ^: and 
the accent is then placed upon the (*) Hamzah, in pro- 

o 

nouncing the word ; thus, tjj]^ " a certain person of 
Shiraz," &c. 

50. Although this ( _g, termed e^x-J^Li, that is, of con- 

F 



34 



PERSIAN GKAMMAR. 



nection or patronymic, is purely Arabic, yet it is so exten- 
sively used in Persian as to render it quite necessary for a 
beginner to understand the nature of it. 



51. e^sbJ t^b the ^ is sometimes added to a Verbal 

is^, 
Noun, to express fitness, suitableness, &c. ; as, J^ " fit to 

O si? 

be done,"' d*jf>- " fit to eat," &c. : and sometimes to intimate 

o o if 

an event or circumstance ; as, *$<j)y " the day //< or which," 

*> Is ' 

&c., itfj^j "the time when"; meaning, in both places, to 
describe some event or circumstance. It is, in this sense, 

O , f 

called the cy/Lil ^b , that is, of Intimation. 

52. This ^ has also several other little uses in Persian ; but 
they being either very rare, or purely poetical, I have not 
thought it necessary to detain the reader in order to explain 
them. 

OF PRONOUNS. 

53. The Persian Pronouns have also two Numbers, 
Singular and Plural ; and there is no difference of Gender, 
except in the Third Persons of irrational and inanimate 
things. The Pronouns belonging to these two are the same, 
and may also be used for rational beings ; but such as are 
peculiar to the latter should not be used for any other. 

The following are the separate Personal Pronouns : 



SINGULAR. 



(I T 



" 



I." 

Thou." 



j\" He "or "She." 



" He "or "She." 



It." 



PLURAL. 



"" 



" 



We." 
You." 
They." 



They." 



PERSIAN GKAMMAR. 



35 



54. These are declined as any other Nouns ; except that the 
letter ^ in the First Person, and the letter } in the Second 
Person Singular, are left out when the Particle I, is added to 
the Pronoun : and in the Third Person of both numbers, in 
the Dative Case, the letter may also be interposed between 
the Particle <__> and the first I, which in some instances is 
altogether omitted ; as will be seen in the following examples : 



N. & G. ^ 


. y 


O x 





D. ^ 


y?- 

X 


Ac. 1^ 


I/ 


O xOx 


JWy 


AK 

** ^* L'f^J 


yjl 


O x O x 


To , 


V. _,el 


y^ 1 



SINGULAR. 



or 



N.&G. 


U UA 






9 


D. 


Uo 


MUM 






^ 


Ac. 


V- 






V 


^Ox 


Ab. 


Ujt 


Li|l 




o x 


*" O X 


V. 


U^l 


V*w ^> 



PLURAL. 

O O 



jj or ^ 



1* .1-1 



f>1 or jjjUl 

O O 

jub or UilJo or 



or 



55. The RECIPROCAL PRONOUN Oyi- "self" or "own/' appli- 
cable to persons of both sexes, as well as to things, may be de- 
clined in the same manner : it may also be added to the Per- 
sonal Pronouns, in all the Cases, for the sake of emphasis ; as, 



SINGULAR. 

o o / ' 



PLURAL. 

O O ? 



36 (H) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



56. The POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS may be rendered in two 
ways in Persian ; by declining a Noun before the Nomina- 
tive Cases of all the Personal Pronouns, excepting the Accu- 
sative, where the affix \j is added to the Pronoun ; or by 
declining a Noun with the Personal Pronouns constructed 
as it were thus, ^ " My," d?! " Thy," Jtl " His," ^U " Our," 
JS " Your," JA " Their." The I in the three former is 
omitted, and the Nouns joined only to p, ^>, ( ji, excepting 

when the Noun ends in quiescent * ; as will be seen in 

i, , ^ , i, 

the following examples : J <uU- " My house," cyl *jl- " Thy 

house," &c. 



SINGULAR. 

1 , - 

or ^j&J " My father." 
^ or J,Jo " Thy father." 



or 



or 



" Your father." 



or j; 



or 



" His father." 



11s ' 

u lij] ; Jo or jj>> " Their father." 



To which, also, the Reciprocal Pronoun may be added ; thus : 



ur 

or i 
or 

or 



" My own book." 
" Thine own book." 
" My own books." 

i "My friend." 
^ "Thy brother." 

" His horse." 
J " My gardens." 



or^Utft/li " Your camels." 

&c. ^c. &c. 



His own book," 

&c. &c. 
Our own books." 

" My own friend. " 
Thine own brother." 
His own horse." 
My own gardens." 
Your own camels/' 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(r"v) 37 



SINGULAR. 
It 



57. The three Pronouns may also be used together ; thus : 

PLUBAL. 

I, myself." ^U^kU " We, ourselves, 

ky "Thou, thyself." 
k.\ " He, himself." 



' You, yourselves." 
k u \-Lj\ "They, themselves." 



58. OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The following are the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

O O , T . -- 

_jj\ " This" (rational, or otherwise). u> "That" (rational, or otherwise). 



JO\ "These "(rational, or other wise). \j\ "Those" (rational, or otherwise). 

O "> . -- 

O^ " These" (rational beings only). ^j\j\ ' v These" (rational beings only). 

59. These Pronouns may also be declined like any other 
of the preceding kinds, and with or without the Reciprocal 
or Possessive Pronouns, or with the Reciprocals alone ; as, 



EXAMPLES. 



SINGULAR. 



i-^jl This, him, her, or it self. 



or l^Jbl &c. I 



These, themselves, &c. 



_ 

To this, him, her, or it self. ' ' > To these themselves, 

| or l^JbJa &c.J &c 



From this, him, her, or it self. 



-> X < 1 
J.)! This, him, her, or it self. 



s-^Uojl j 

, _, \ From these, themselves, 

u];] &c.j &c> 



J or l^ijl &c. 



These, themselves, &c. 



38 (TA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SINGULAR. 



PLURAL. 



This ' h ' lm - her ' Or U Self " 



* J^i- ^J '\ From tl " s ' h i m > her ' or * l self- 

O ? _ 

p-,.,1 That, him, her, or it self. 



or Ui*l &c. 1 



These, themselves. 



' t o, V From these, themselves. 
Jbhl &c.J 



or 



r) / 

k j 



To that, him, her, or it self. 



Those, themselves. 



or U) I & c . 



*j) 



To those, themselves. 



or 



j. T.I From that, him, her, or it self. 



*j^ T That, him, her, or it self, i 



' / 



From those, themselves. 



or l^J I hi &c. 



O x ? O _ 



or U>| & c . 



> Those, themselves. 



That, him, her, or it self, j " > Those, themselves. 

i or (ail Sue.] 



From that 



, him, her, or it self.) \ff\' ( From those.themselves. 

"^ J s 



60. When ^1 " This " is prefixed to a Noun, so as to form 
one word altogether, it is sometimes changed into J ; as, 
\ " This day," JJU " This night," Jull " This year," &c. 

o 

I do not, however, recollect any other instance in which ^1 
is so changed ; and I rather believe that these are the only 
instances that could be cited. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (Tl ) 39 

61. OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The Relative Pronouns are two, in Persian : i$ " Who," 
relating to Persons more particularly, but sometimes to 
Animals, and to Things also ; and *=- " Which," relates ex- 
clusively to Things. They may be declined with any one, 
or all, of the Personal, Possessive, Demonstrative, and 
Reciprocal Pronouns ; thus : 

[N. B. It is superfluous to observe, that, to make sense of 
these Examples, a Verb must be added.] 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

^yt I, who, myself. ^\/e3^k. &S \x We, who, ourselves. 

- ? O ? . P 

OJijifc. &i J Thou, who, thyself. ^U^k&i l^ij You, who, yourselves. 

-" f s 

S \ He (or she) who, him- i '' ^ . A > ,, 

J > . ,\^j^ ^. &i . .\JLJ1 They, who, themselves. 

*? self (or herself). !* ' ,-? ^ 



My father, who &c. 

My father, who, himself &c. 

Thy father, who himself &c. 

His ( w her ) father, who himself &c. 

My brother, who - - to himself &c. 

Thy sister, who - - to herself &c. 

x . ^ " " 

^^ e His mother, who - - to me &c. 

Thy friend, whom - - from me &c. 

- X 

^jU iO ^o i_JU$ My book, which - - to he himself &c. 



40 (1*.) PERSIAN GBAMMAR. 



The house, which, - from my own father &c. 
' ' That horse ' which ' from m y brother 

himself &c . 



The horses, which, - - to yourselves &c. 

^ JO V&Axi The books, which, - - from ourselves &c. 
&c. &c. 



INANIMATE THINGS. 

t 9 



3*^. 4OO &aC\ 7Via<, which, -- to himself &c. 

, which, -- to themselves &c. 

* _ 

C? t^ 1 ^ ^sCi TAa^, which, we ourselves --- from thee &c. 

9 ^s 9 9 O * 

i VjO^ L+& &at;\ T//O/, which, you yourselves - from him &c. 

, which, they themselves - to me &c. 



PI 



L5 J ,.I - .5iw *jOO xjg\ TAa/, which, my father himself - - to him &c. 



iu \ \ - . which, thy brothers themselves 

i V ^Mj ^ from them &c. 



N ' Ji-T ^Aaf, which he, - from the house of his 
J ^^ *^ own father &c. 



62. When the Relative Pronoun < comes after an Inde- 
finite Noun, the Noun, although it may have the Indefinite 
Particle ^, still will become Definite ; as, .Jbli^lj "A certain 

o o Ox - " 

king," a ( _ s tola4>U "That king, who," ^^ "A certain man," 
&*j " The man, who," ^*>. "Any thing," kj^."The 
thing, which": and the same in the Plural, &c. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (1!) 41 



63. OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

T 

The Pronouns <*- and *- may also be used Interroga- 
tively ; as, " Who 1" and " What?" In the Oblique Cases of 
these Pronouns, however, the final x is absorbed before the 
syllable I, ; as, 1^ " Whom ? " " To whom ?" or " Who for V 
and \j* " Why ? " or " What for ? " And in the former of these, 

o 

the x may be changed into ^ also ; as, ^ " Who," for per- 
sons only : and when reference is made to more than one 

O f IF 

object, the Pronouns Jj^ or ^^Ij^ must be used ; as, 
^UT "Which man?" J^^tof "Which woman?" I^W 
" Which road ? " LV^jJjl " Which house ? " In all these 
instances, the meaning is " which " particular one, out of 
many things of the same kind. 

64. The Interrogative Pronouns may be used along with 
the others ; as follows : 

[N.B. An Interrogative sentence can hardly be rendered 
perfect without a Verb ; but as the beginner is supposed to 
be, as yet, unacquainted with the Persian Verbs, a vacant 
place is left, thus - , where the Verb ought to come, in 
all the following sentences : the corresponding places in the 
English, however, are supplied with Verbs, printed in 
Italics.] 



9 TOO. 



(.) i ,5 Who was that man who him- 
self &c.? 



I y_- t --^ /.y i to '^ ^ Of whom didst thou purchase 

this horse ? 

"" T ^ T ' 

J\ii: ', 4 yo I l j^V^i Why did you to-day come to mv 

' 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



^ 

Ao_> N -,bk J Thou thyself, than whom better 
- ; ^V * ~ arfthou? 

O-' O O 

- <k*. lj\ ^,l-lJ\ What do they wisft from us ? 



100 Which of thy brothers did he 
r beat ? 

O O 9 m j, 

Whom didst thyself bring to my 
house ? 

What didst thou ask of her 
brother ? 



x If ^ T 

- -- io',\iw 5 \\AJO\ Of whom didst thou learn these 

thins? 



things? 

was the man who dirf this ? 

Which is better than these ? 



'^ What do </tey ca^/ this flower in 
" the Persian tongue ? 

o ^ ^ o x o^ _ 

!o , wi^^.\.^. ,.,, ,.,\ Why did not that woman herself 

->s " ^X^ _> J't ^-J) *-^ .1 n 

say to thee f 



Than whom is thy father better ? 

# V .Joo'i^jo J ig\A g j>. ( Of the cities of Europe, which is 
*? \ -T " -J*~--> the larger ? 

Less than whom am I myself ? 



OfTx '19 ? 1 _ o 

- * \j O ix O &So\ \a^ What was that which thou thy- 
self didst take from him ? 

Ox,OOx-)x->x ?, 

. . , tXJJo ,51 . ,\t,o Which road is nearer to London ? 

u -T 

N V^i X>--O w The man who saw you, who was he ? 

O j O O x 

5o \ ,Lj L5\Jix-j\ Who <oo^ out our horses ? 



^ x. ^ ^ n thine own house what wast 
thou doing? 

Which of these books is thy book ? 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



) 43 



65. The English Pronouns "Whosoever," "Whatso- 
ever," &c., are thus expressed in Persian : 

"Whosoever." 



Whatsoever." 



"Whichsoever." 



Whensoever." 



' Wheresoever." 
*>) 

' " However," or " In 
whatever manner." 



' " Every thing," or 
" Whatsoever thing." 



" Every body." 
" Every place." 
" Every day." 
" Every night." 
"Both." 
"Each." 
" All." 



OF THE PERSIAN VERBS. 

66. Before discussing the subject of the Persian Verbs 
fully, the student will do well to learn by heart the Perso- 
nal Terminations. No Persian Verb or Participle, of any 
kind, whether Active or Passive, can be formed without 
them ; inasmuch as by them alone the Numbers and the 
Persons of all the Verbs and Participles are decided. These 
Personal Terminations (as the name itself denotes) uniformly 
appear at the end of the word, and are six in number : 
three for the Singular, and three for the Plural ; thus : 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 


Tx 




O O 


^\ 


"Am." 


d "Are." 


r 






J 


" Art." 


^\ "Are." 


-> "x 




o , 


^**~\ 


" Is." 


t>J\ "Are." 



G2 



44 (ft ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

67. In composition, however, the first letter in every one 
of these is omitted (except when the words ends in quies- 
cent *), and the word prefixed to the remaining portion ; viz. 

tO , 



68. The Termination, Third Person Singular, o- is 
omitted in the Imperfect, the Pluperfect, and the Simple- 
Preterite Tenses ; and it is changed into J in the Future, 
the Aorist, and the Present Tense, as well as in the Impe- 
rative Mood ; as will be presently seen, in conjugating the 
Verbs. 

69. Let us first join these Terminations to the Personal 
Pronouns ; thus : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



O s s 



I am." 



"Thou art." 



" He (or she) is." 



is 



"We are." 



"You are." 



t^l "They are.' 1 



70. They may also be joined to any Abstract Noun ; 

~> ~> , 
such, for instance, as <Ju~a " existence/' ^Jli " gladness," 

o 

i_^x!o " boldness," &c. In such cases, the final (_$ is always 
dropped ; and the remaining part, which then becomes an 
Adjective, only, as i^Ia * "existent," Jli "glad," jib " bold/' 
is prefixed to the Personal Terminations ; thus : 



* It is a mistake to suppose this to be the Present Tense of the 

o , t 

Auxiliary Verb To be" which in Persian is ^y> i.e. To be" in a certain 
condition, manner, mood, place, &c. ; and not lir XJ& , erroneously supposed 
to be the Infinitive, a word which does not exist in the Persian language. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



45 



SINGULAR. 



PLURAL. 



^x Jb I exist. 

> T - 

'v-.-fr Thou existest. 

; " ' i 

He (or she) exists. 



... \o~ft 
' ' 



-i\_ij I am glad. 
j Thou art glad. 
* He (or she) is glad. 



A .jJ^ I am bold. 

o 

<_$ vj^ Thou art bold. 
J* 

He (or she) is bold. 



We exist. 



You exist. 



They exist. 



*J.i\-j We are glad. 

o o 

You are glad. 
They are glad. 

^ .jJ^ We are bold. 

O O 

Oo .jJi You are bold. 

O > O 

They are bold. 



71. All the Persian Verbs are to be considered, in their 
origin, as so many abstract terms, denoting certain acts or 
states of things ; but the manner in which the act is per- 
formed, the time of performance, the agent or person who 
performed it, and the object of it, are all determined by 
certain Auxiliaries added to these abstract terms ; or by 
certain modifications which they must undergo, before they 
can express their own meanings exactly and definitively. 
It is necessary, therefore, for a beginner to understand the 



What has been stated with regard to the Third Person Singular of 

o^ 

the Personal Termination U^v*>', viz. to be left out altogether in some Tenses, 
does not apply to these kinds of Adjectives. And the t in the Pronouns 

O o s OO^ 

and Jol , in many instances of composition, may be omitted. 



4G (^1) PERSIAN GBAMMAR. 

nature of these Auxiliaries well, before he attempts to go 
any further in learning the Verbs. 

72. Some of these Auxiliaries are in themselves a species 
of Verbs, and are called " Auxiliary Verbs"; of some of 
which the following are the Infinitives, or Verbal Nouns : 

^"Tobe," ^li " To become," ^ib " To have," ^/ 

"To do," JLljk " To will," &c. ; and these are the Auxiliary 
Verbs chiefly employed in conjugating other Persian Verbs, 
Active or Passive. 

73. The Persian Verbs have but one conjugation ; and 
the Infinitives always end in ^. The antecedent letter of 

them, invariably, is either a t> da, or a uu la, enunciated 

">ff 
with a (') jtj ; as shewn in the Infinitives of the Auxiliary 

Verbs already cited. 

73. With regard to the formation of the different Tenses 
of Persian Verbs, attempts have been made by some inge- 
nious writers to lay down certain rules by which to deduce 
all the Tenses of a Verb from the Infinitive. 

Recourse has been had, therefore, to various complicated 
systems of classification ; which, in their turns, have given 
birth to so many exceptions, as to make the Irregulars 
almost as numerous as the Regular Verbs ; to the great dis- 
couragement of the beginners of a new language, who, in 
consequence, may, at the very outset, despair of ever acquiring 
a competent knowledge of one of the most essential parts 
of his task ; namely, the conjugation of a Verb. 

This unnecessary obstruction seems to have been caused 
by a desire to imitate the Arabian Grammarians ; who, 
according to the genius of the Arabic language, which 



PEBSIAN GRAMMAR. 0^) 47 

admits of such an arrangement, denominate the Infinitive 

o Q ^ 

or source whence all Tenses and Moods flow. 





The great beauty of the Persian language is its extreme 
simplicity, and the admirable facility with which the different 
Parts of Speech can be combined and understood. 

74. The reader is therefore requested to observe, that in 
the Persian language there are two sources, from which the 
different Moods and Tenses of a Verb are derived ; viz. the 
Infinitive, and the Imperative or Aorist. From the former, 
the Preterites, the Past Participle, and the Future Tense of 
a Verb are deduced ; and from the latter, the Present Tense, 
the Aorist, the Participle Active, and the Participle Present. 

75. It is always easy to recognise the Infinitives, by the 
final ^j, in the manner already described : and, as an addi- 
tional aid, I subjoin a Table, where almost all the Impera- 
tives will be found alphabetically arranged.* The reader 
will have only to look for any Infinitive that he wishes, and 
he will find the Imperative directly opposite to the same. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

76. Now, we begin by conjugating the AUXILIARY VERBS. 

First : Oy " Being." 



INFINITIVE. 
To be." 



IMPERATIVE. 
Jib " Be thou." 

By rejecting the last syllable of the Infinitive, the Third 
Person Singular of the Simple Preterite is obtained, and the 
remaining Persons of the same Tense are formed by adding 
the Personal Terminations to the word so obtained t ; thus : 



* See the Index. ^ See the Personal Terminations, p. 43. 



48 (PA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 



SINGULAR. 

^ I was. 



PLURAL. 



> o f 

* We were. 



> You (or ye) were. 

j> 

They were. 



Thou wast. 

? 

-> He (or she) was. 



77. The COMPOUND PRETERITE is formed by adding the 

,"9 f 

quiescent * to the Simple Preterite ; as, from <v 



I have been. 
' 
Thou hast been. 

/ 

J He (or she) has been. 



v v ^ 

+ &^jj We have been. 

jJ You have been. 

* 

J They have been. 



Ox' 



We used to be. 
You used to be. 
JO They used to be. 



i 

78. The PRETERITE IMPERFECT is formed by prefixing _ 

Ox ' O '- O f O 

or ( _ s *a> to the Simple Preterite ; as, from ity , 



I used to be. 
Thou usedst to be. 
He (or she) used to be. 



79. This Verb has no Pluperfect Tense. In other Verbs, 
this Tense is formed by prefixing the Compound Preterite 

O s~)t 

to the different Persons of the Auxiliary jjy ; and if this 
Verb had a Pluperfect Tense, it would likewise be formed 

O s f 

by prefixing sJy, which is the Compound Preterite of the 
Verb we are now conjugating, to the Persons of the Simple 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 49 



Preterite of the Auxiliary ; and the Tense would then be 
as follows : 



SINGULAR. 



I had been. 



J Thou hadst been. 



We had been. 



J You had been. 



-> He (or she) had been, j OO.3O Sty They had been. 



80. The PAST PARTICIPLE is always the same in form as 

Is f 

the Compound Preterite ; which, in this Verb, is 



81. The FUTURE TENSE is formed by prefixing the diffe- 

o s 

rent Persons of the Aorist of the Auxiliary Verb J**^ to 
the Simple Preterite of the Verb ; thus : 



I w in or shall be. 



We will or shall be. 



. 
Thou wilt or shalt be. -^ iXxA. You will or shall be. 

<' ' ' V ' 
A. He (or she) shall be. \ ^ OojJ>\jk They will or shall be. 



82. Excepting in Poetical writings, when a syllable often 
will be found in the way, no Persian Imperative is ever 
used without prefixing the Particle u_> : in which case there 
will be no difference of form between the Imperative Mood 
and the Aorist, excepting in the Second Person Singular, 

o 

when the former has not the Personal Termination ; as, jjlL 

O 

or ^(M " Be thou'": and the latter has it as usual ; as, 
or ^L " You be," or " You may be." 

H 



50 (0.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

83. IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

SINGULAR. . PLURAL. 

o o / o o o o 

or ^V.O " Be thou. \ oo^u or OUwj\jJ " Be ye." 



84. The AORIST is formed from the Contracted Imperative 

O O 

by prefixing the Particle i_> ; as from ^ , ^Uu , adding 
the Terminations. 

1 , (00 

I be. *^W We be. 



Thou beest. Oo^ijjJ You be. 

(00, 

ijjo He (or she) be. tXx^Uj They be. 



85. When the Aorist is used as the Subjunctive, the Par- 
ticle is omitted ; thus : 

Ox , O O 

^T I may be. . (^~ J V We may be. 

1 V Thou mayst be. 



'} 

J^ V You may be. 



. 
ij\J He (or she) may be. Oo^jU They may be. 



86. The PRESENT TENSE is formed by prefixing to the 

o 

Contracted Imperative the Particle ^; as, from ^b, we 
have o or 



0x0 I 

lam. ^'* We are. 



Thou art. ^^^V^ You are. 

0^.0 

owc He (or she) is. OsXisVjOvo They are. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (* ' ) 51 

87. There are two PARTICIPLES in Persian, in the Active 
Voice the PRESENT, and the ACTIVE or SUBSTANTIVE PARTI- 
CIPLE. By the Present Participle is meant, all those Parti- 
ciples which in English end in -ing ; as, "writing," " walkmg," 
" speakmg-," &c., when the agent, to whom the act is attri- 
buted, is, at the moment, performing the action : and by the 
Active Participle, all those which end in -er ; as, "writer," 
"walker," "speaker," &c., when the agent may or may not 
be at the moment performing the action. 

88. The PRESENT PARTICIPLE is formed by adding ^T to the 

T T 

Contracted Imperative ; as from ,^pb , ^lib , adding the 
Personal Terminations. 



SINGULAR. 



I am being &c. 



We are being &c. 



j Thou art being &c. OuJij You are being &c. 

, 5 > . , 

l^Aj He (or she) is being &c. I OooLiAj They are being &c. 



89. The ACTIVE or SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE is formed by 

*;* 

adding jJl to the Contracted Imperative ; thus : 



^j lam&c. ^OoJ^ We are Sec. 



Thou art &c. 



He (or she) is &e. 



Lb You are &c. 

- 

U They are &c. 



90. The reader will observe, that this Verb jOj? "To be" 
is not quite perfect. Many of the Tenses and Moods 
which I have here laid down, for example's sake, are forced, 

and are not to be met with in the language ; such as, the 

" '' i ^ f 
Pluperfect Tense ^^y>, and the Active and Present Parti- 



52 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



ciples, xjjoib and ^Ulj : but, as my object was to lay down 
for the beginner a model for the conjugation of the Persian 
Verbs in general, and had begun with one of the most 
useful of the Auxiliary Verbs, I did not like to break off by 
pointing out defects in a Verb which, in its nature, cannot 
possibly be perfect in all the Tenses and Moods ; and as it 
might lead a beginner to suppose that the rules I was laying 
down for him were imperfect, since exceptions were stated 
at the very outset. The reader will find, however, the model 
here laid down for him perfectly applicable to all the Persian 
Verbs susceptible of the Tenses and Moods of the Active 
Voice, Indicative Mood. 

O , 9 

91. The Verb c><^ " To become." 



INFINITIVE. , IMPERATIVE. 

i " Be thou." Oo> " Be ye. v 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 

Reject the ^ of the Infinitive, and add the Personal 
Terminations ; thus : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



I became. <*-> We became. 



Thou becamest. cXJtXif You became. 

\ ) , 

> He (or she) became. OOcX They became. 



92. COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

Add the quiescent * to the Simple Preterite with the Per- 
sonal Terminations ; thus : 

I 



3iX-> I have become. 



j Thou hast become. 



/% j 



\ 2cX> We have become. 



You have become. 



He (or she) has 'l\ 

^ become. OoUfcXi. They have become. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (of) 53 

93. IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Prefix the Simple Preterite with ^, and add the Personal 
Terminations ; thus : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 , ? ) 1 9 

I was becoming. j ^OJLx We were becoming. 

(no<?o 

Thou wast becoming. tXJtXL.x*c You were becoming. 

O x . Q 

He (or she) was becoming. i> OO(X*<a They were becoming. 

94. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Put the Compound Preterite before all the Persons of 

' ' ' 

the Simple Preterite of the Verb ^$ ; i. e. before L)^ . 



I had become. 



Thou hadst become. 



He (or she) had become. 



! f ) , f 



> We had become. 



ij You had become. 



They had become. 



95. FUTURE TENSE. 

Put the different Persons of the Aorist of the Auxiliary 
Verb { ^\f>- before the Third Person Singular of the Simple 
Preterite of the Verb* ; thus : 

i. I will or shall become. L Jjk\^. We wil1 w sha11 be ~ 

come. 



.* 



Thou wilt or shalt be- 



come. 



' , . He (or she) will or 



You will or shall be- 
come. 

They will or shall be- 



shall become. \ ^~^ <-*JM>J=*. come- 



* ' 

See the following Verb, aj*Jj- " To will," or " To wish." 



(Of) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



96. THE AORIST. 

Put t_> before the Imperative ; and add the Personal 
Terminations ; thus : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 x x , Ox 

-~> I may become. (-J**^ We may become. 



J Thou mayst become. 
He (or she) may be- 



come. 



You may become. 
They may become. 



97. PRESENT TENSE. 



Put ^ before the Imperative, and add the Personal 
Terminations ; thus : 

O - - 1 I . O ' ' x 1 

^A^* I become. pty~> We become. 



c You become. 



Thou becomest. 

\ T>J, 1 

He (or she) becomes. OO *-!-> They become. 



98. The PRESENT PARTICIPLE, corresponding in English with 
I am becoming," is in Persian wanting in this Verb. 

99. THE ACTIVE OR SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. 

o^o, 

Add *si\ to the Imperative, with the Personal Termina- 
tions ; thus : 



I am becomer &c.* 



We are becomers &c. 



Thou art becomer &c. | &->\ 3 JO^Sj You are becomers &c. 

j-JOx^Txx 

He (or he) is becomer. | oo\ ioj^ They are becomers &c. 



* rrn_- 

This termination is intended to give the Persian model, in which lan- 
guage this form is considered a Participle ; though in English it bears the 
character of a Substantive. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(oo) 55 



100. The Verb J " To Will," or " To Wish." 



SINGULAR. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



k Wishthou. 



PLURAL. 

JJ&\^. Wish ye. 



TX O 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE TENSE.* 

1 --i 1 



^- I wished. 
^- Thou wishedst. 
He (or she) wished. 



JU^. 



^- We wished, 

j^- You wished. 

O x O 

tXxx-. jU^. They wished. 



& ' '? 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

O , O 

I I . 

*ji Xx-jUA. \\r e have wished. 

\ 

^ You have wished. 



(sJ; 



I have wished. 

Thou hast wished. 

s " 

Ox x O 

He (or she) has oJ\X>.Jk They have wished, 

wished. i 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

o 

I was wishing. 
Thou wast wishing. 



O O O 

L^. -..\.^^ He (or she) was wish- 
ing. 



~iyj S^J\^. i h a( j w i s hed. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



A- Thou hadst wished. 
^. He (or she) had wished. 



O x O 



We were wishing. 
You were wishing. 

were wishing. 



We had wished. 
You had wished. 

>Wsh They had wished. 



* 

See the Rules in Verb ^Oy p. 49. 



,,. 

56 (el) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 
PAST PARTICIPLE. 

Xx^jui. Wished. 

FUTURE TENSE. 




SINGULAR. 

I will or shall wish. 



He sh ( a n w th 



THE AORIST. 



I may wish. 

Thou mayst wish. 
He (or she) may wish. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

I wish. 

Thou wishes! 
He (or she) wishes. 



PLURAL. 

We will or shall wish. 
You will or shall wish. 
They will or shall wish. 



We may wish. 
You may wish. 
They may wish. 



We wish. 
You wish. 

X 

OOJ& ue They wish. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



I am wishing. 
Thou art wishing. 
b i ^. He (or she) is wishing, j 



ACTIVE OR SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. 



> ^ 



I am wisher &c. 
Thou art wisher &c. 
i. He (or she) is wisher &c. 



are wishing. 
You are wishing. 
They are wishing. 



We are wishers &c. 

You are wishers &c. 

' 
oAwiw They are wishers &c. 



PEKSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(cv) 57 



101. The Verb 



To Have" 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



J 



SINGULAR. 



b Have thou. 



PLURAL. 



' . 

OO.O Have you. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE.* 

o o o 



^ 

o o 


) I had. 
> Thou hadst. 


*^lib 


We had. 
You had. 


o o 

o^\: 


> He (or she) had. 


juuk>b 


They had. 


0' - ? 
\ X"v * \ ^ 

AlJUU 

*? | 
X)y&b 


COMPOUND 

I have had. 
Thou hadst had. 


PRETERITE. 

1 s 1 

jo\&i^b 


We have h 
You have 



He (or she) has had. 



They have had. 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 



*! s 1 O 



*xj| 



I was having. 



jLij\ cXx Thou wast having. 



,*JOuli I cX)u We were having. 



You were having. 

o o o 

t *'! <Xx/c He(or she) was having, j Ooo^l i>A< They were having. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

^ ' ^ . jooJ'o^o 

|UO I had had. .j^.j JUAO We had had. 



. 



Thou hadst had. 
>J Xxi-b He (or she) had had. 



You had had. 
i They had had. 



See the Auxiliary Verb ,j JjJ p. 47. 

I 



58 (OA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



FUTURE TENSE. 









SINGULAR. 

k. I will or shall have. 
ifc. Thou wilt or shalt have. 



u lj.\ - He (or she) will or shall 
* have. 



O O 
" A 



k. We will or shall have. 



xi3 You will or shall have. 



. 
Wa.. They will or shall have. 



I have. 

o 

^OOw Thou hast. 

He (or she) has. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

Having had. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

fOVM 



oo 

^ 



AORIST. 



", 

ytX) I ma y h ave - 

o 

CfAX) Thou mayst have. 

i, 

J>\tXJ He (or she) may have. 



o 



XJ . 



We have. 
You have. 
They have. 

We may have. 
iitxJ You may have. 
J They may have. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



I am having. 

,i\ O Thou art having. 

'\ \ 

...>uO He (or she) is having. 



oj\ .b We are having. 

o o 

tXXJ^jb You are having. 

OOO\ jO They are having. 



ACTIVE OR SUBSTANTI\"E PARTICIPLE. 







I am haver, 



3 .\.3 Thou art haver, 
3.O He (or she) is haver, 



,0 



We are havers, 
You are havers, 



? 

o 



They are havers, I 2 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



01) 59 



102. eP/ " To Do." 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 



> 

,. Do Thou. 



->.> 

OOJ6 Do 



ye- 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE* 



did. 



Thou didst. 



(or she) did. 



r 



\ - 

,1 JO yt 



I have done. 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

T x O 



*J 
O Ox x O 



Thou hast done. 



>\ S3 p> He (or she) has done. 



We did. 
You did. 
They did. 

We have done. 
You have done. 
35 .S They have done. 



\ ' V" 
Ol 2(3 f 

o ^ o <> 

tX)\ ^3 .i 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



OxOX 

+35^0 I was doing. 
^SlS-^c Thou wast doing. 
2j(*c He (or) she was doing. 



. 0x0 

o3 yo- We were doing. 



x/ You were doing. 



Ji .xjwc They were doing. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 



-Ox 

.i .S I had done. 



, 

Thou hadst done. 



He (or she) had done. 



We had done. 

, 

You had done. 



jJ:y 3:^They had done. 



See the Auxiliary Verb ^yi p. 47. 



60 (1.) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SINGULAR. 

i. I will or shall do. 



FUTURE TENSE, 
o o 



. 

^- Thou wilt or shalt do. 



. He (or she) will or 
shall do. ' 



^ .i .fc 



PLURAL. 

We will or shall do. 
You will or shall do. 
They will or shall do. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 



Having done. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

o f o 

I do. ,^J^ We do. 

Thou doest. tXx-xXx* You do. 

He (or she) do. OOJiXxc They do. 



AORIST. 



I may do. 
Thou mayst do. 
He (or she) may do. 



o\jvi I am doing. 

7 _ ^ 
,iuS Thou art doing. 



j We may do. 
J You may do. 
JoJO They may do. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

^jkJUS'We are doing. 
You are doing. 



He (or she) is doing. 



Tx ? 

OoJlJo They are doing. 



ACTIVE OR SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. 

' I'-s' I r> \ ' t 'S 

i> JsJJS I am doer. ^j\ ^ Juoi We are doers. 



r" 



Thou art doer. 

x T x ^, 

3ooou He (or she) is doer. 



You are doers. 

' ^ ' *s 
i tXJoi They are doers. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (II) 61 



OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND POTENTIAL MOODS. 



103. As neither of these Moods could properly be ex- 
pressed in Persian without certain particular Auxiliaries or 
peculiar modes of phraseology, I have reserved the exami- 
nation of them until I had explained some of the Ordinary 
and Auxiliary Verbs, and laid down the rules for conju- 
gating them. 

104 By SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD is meant a thing represented 

under a condition, motive, wish, supposition &c. ; and it is pre- 

'V' 

ceded usually by a Conjunction ; as, ^1 "if": by an Interjec- 
tion ; as, JtK " Would that ! " or " May it be granted!" &c. : 

O r>, 

or by an Adverb ; as, x-/l " although ; " jol " perhaps," 
&c. : and it is generally accompanied with another Verb ; as, 

T>^ > , 1 f ~ 

J/jjblji-jl ^lyk/l " If thou shouldst ask, he (or she) will do 
it": j^^ji^fX&i},^^ "I shall not do this, 
although he should kill me," &c. 

105. It is not always necessary that the Subjunctive 
should have the Particle i_> placed before it. This is only 
the case in the Aorist of the Subjunctive, as in the two 
preceding examples. 

106. The following will be a model for conjugating any 
Verb in the Subjunctive Mood, in Persian. There will be 
only one Tense of each of the Verbs given as a specimen ; 
but the reader can easily supply the rest, or change the 
forms according to his own fancy. 



62 (If) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

FOR TIME PAST. 



or 



SINGULAR. 

Had I been, or If I 
had been. 

1 ' Oxx 

,_$iV r>\ Hadst thou been, or 
If thou hadst been. 

>r 

or <f>j>) Had he, she, or it, been. 



or 



PLURAL. 

.j . Jj Had we been, or If we 
had been. 

O O 9 O x 

A>t)k> $\ Had you been, or If 

you had been. 
Had they been, or If 
they had been. 



or 



or 



Would that I had ! or 
I wish I had been ! 

Would that thou 
hadst been ! 

Would that he, she, or 
it, had been ! 



or 



or t)j 



Cl Althouffh I was or i 

i 

had been. 

i'' 

j <t-.s! Although thou wast 
or had been. 

x, 

\ Although he, she, or it, 
had been. 



. 



Would that we had been! 
or I wish we had been ! 



jo Jy (ili" Would that you had 
been ! 

^ x T c O 

Would that they had 
been ! 



^i>*> &s~ 1\ Although we were or 
had been. 

Altho' you were &c. 
Altho' they were &c. 



or 



Perhaps I was or *>t>*> JoLi Perhaps we were or 

may have been. may have been. 

O/ Ox O 1 f Ox 

i^A+i JoLi Perhaps thou wast or ^.^tf ^^" J Perhaps you were &c. 

mayst have been. 

- 1 ' o, J j O O x7 OxOC Ox 

j or liy Joli, Perhaps he, she, or it, j ^Jo'Jy or Joity JoLi Perhaps they were &c. 
was or may &c. ! 



107. The Particle ^ may be placed before all these 
Verbs ; or the quiescent * added to the end of all of them, 
as in the Compound Preterite and Imperfect Tenses ; or to 
render the Pluperfect Tense in the Subjunctive Mood ; as, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



on es 



O-- T x- Ox-- 

1 <uJv-li ^ * nave wished "r 
desired. 

fif Would that, or I wish 
thou hadst done it ! 

OOx Oxx 

=^' Altho' he was doing. 
jl Perhaps I had done. 



o ''">'' Tr . 

*jlSlXi^l WC 8re 0? " DaVR 

become. 

o o o o 

jJLil ii-v ijSw Would that, or I wish 
you were having ! 

Ox 'OxOx Oxx 3 

te^-jr* ' Altho' they had done. 

0x0 Ox 

i- Joli. We may have wished. 



SINGULAR. 



108. FOR TIME TO COME. 



PLURAL. 

OOx O O 



wish to do. 



OOP O Ox 

O.J Jb1.i-Jol Thou mayst wish 



o f o 



to be. 



OOx O Ox 

5j$ ,JJ&!- Jo Li Perhaps we would do. 

OO^ OO Oxx 

i).j iXxifcLi- ^^l Altho' you would be. 



to be. 

? Ox Oxx O O Ox Oxx 

JJb!.i- dto- jl Although he, she, or e^b jJj&l.i-/! If they would have. 
j 't-j j j 

it, would become, j 



109. AORIST. 
' I should do. 



Thou mayst be. 

f^r I Although I may or should 
i &*-)}) have be 611 - 

110. PRESENT TENSE. 

Oxx 

Although I do. 



O ', Oxx 

ib^il If we should be. 



Perhaps we may wish. 

Would that, or I wish 
they may become ! 



OOO x O 



Jli, Perhaps 
wish. 



Tx xOx OxX 



If they are or should be. 

If thou doest wish. 

| 

jli I may perhaps have. ) +*yitJ*< <s^*-J>\ Although we do become. 

111. PARTICIPLE PRESENT AND ACTIVE. 

O, Ox 

Although I am desiring. JaJjjb Jjli, Perhaps they are having. 

>-r>\ If they are wishers. 

1 Oxx 

'^J*> Although they are doers. 



If he is a possessor. 

jt>li- Joli Perhaps thou art a ! 
wisher. 



64 (1^) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



112. The power and the uses of these Subjunctives, espe- 
cially of the Participles, will be better understood in Com- 
pounds, when these Verbs &c. perform their proper offices of 
Auxiliaries : thus, for instance : 



o o 



A_.?.-M txOul> Perhaps they are seeking justice. 

f x Ox If O^ T 

I\ X/\\\N\ \ \ Ai lie is, or snouid De, trie possessor 01 
vc JOO >U) J I 

J ^ ^ wealth. 

Although I may or should be killed. 



113. The Potential Mood implies "possibility," "liberty," 
" power," " will," or " obligation," which are expressed in 
Persian by certain words generally placed before the Verb ; 

Ox > O , 

as, d ly " possible," " can," or " may " ; e^Jly " might," 
or "could"; lib "necessary," "must," or "shall"; 
Lb " ought," or " should." 



114. A Verb may be rendered Potential in various ways : 
the Past Tenses may be expressed by adding the Personal 

1 1 ^ 00 

Terminations to u^Jly' or o*jb} and placing them before 
the Contracted Infinitive of any Verb, with or without pre- 
fixing ( _ s to either ; as : 

xO 

I might or could do, or have 
done. 

Thou mightest or couldst wish, 
or have wished. 

He> she> 7 ' it( mi S ht ' or could 
see, or have seen. 

o o 

The same with e>^ob 

X 

115. The Separate Pronouns, in the Nominative Form, 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



00 



may at the same time be placed before o^ly and 

o o 

and, in the Accusative Form, before c^*jlj and 

" 



as 



IN THE NOMINATIVE FORM. 



Ox Ox 



O O x x 

** !** 

^ (,5u<ju; J 



O X)^ T T x ^ *5 ^ OxO^ 

<y..M^-M<p\ or ^ ' "' 3 V ^^ -' u^ ^'i ^ *i 



or 



? or 



IN THE ACCUSATIVE FORM. 

O O . ^ O O Q 

, >\JG*c\ , 



or 



TO 

(J?-~+J V' r* 



O O Of O 



or 



or 



or 



or 



116. The Possessive Pronouns may be added to 



as, 
"* 



or 



*v v . U > 
L* 1 



, 
U 



66 (11) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

if Q 1 , 

If we substitute ^ly for e^M*>ly in all the places, when 
the latter appears in the preceding examples, and also 

n, 1 1 

Job for e^swJj in the same manner, we shall have all the 
Aorists and Future Potentials : in these instances, however, 
we may also substitute sometimes the Aorist Tense of the 
Verb (which is intended to be made Potential) for the Con- 
tracted Infinitive ; as, 



or 

I -s I 

I can, am able, or may speak. 






* 'l " "'\ -" I 

j ^iy or ,*->y^> ; 

jyc or <->^ 



' ' ' OU can> are a ^ e > or ma y have. 

or 



When no Personal Terminations, or Pronouns of any kind, 

5 "3 Sx / 

are added, the Verbs are termed Impersonal, JcUJljH ; as, 

TOO x 

One could, or, it is possible to, see. 



It is possible to, or one may, wish. 
i^VXXc or tX>U One must, or ought to, do. 



117. A Verb may be Potential and Subjunctive at the 
same time ; as, 

l\ ' . '.\ -. H If l should be able, or if I can, I will 
give you. 



-r 
Sk. o l Although we might have done. 

^ , , ^ s 

Zsj $> OoO\3Ui \\ ^)/-y^ ^^ Perhaps they can take this from us. 



f O O .. 



I wish I had been able to see thy 

father ! 

O ^ 



^ JA/ To-day, if thou art able, take a ride. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. O v ) 67 



) Although I was sick, yet I could have 
,' . . .-: j gone two or three steps. 

*J J Iji^* J 



' " M \ V"' V \f- 

OO3J <$OOOOU\*i jSyi (^-"-^ (Would that they had never seen us, 
, , / , . ' ' o " <! so that they might not be able to 

(^ do thus ! 



sJul3/. r e\i (Thou wouldst not hear it from me, 
*~^-^ ) 



although I told thee a thousand 
\'o^\\ I times that thou couldst never see 
that. 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

118. In Persian, when a person wishes another either 
good or bad luck, or when he blesses or curses, he inter- 
poses the letter Alef (I) between the penultimate and final 
letter of the Third Person Singular of the Aorist, chiefly of 

one of the following Verbs ; viz. l^J "To do"; ^ifi "To 

O s 1 O O ^ 

become "; ^^^J " To cause to become "; ^Jb " To give"; 

T sW 1,9 -~)ss O s ">s Ox T s 9 

and gjjjt/'lb be": thus, Jdf, j^, Jolj/, jjbJ, and J^-j 

O^O^O -' O O^ 1 

become JUJ", jl^i, jUlj/, jUj, and iil^, or ob ; and they 
are then thus joined to a sentence, or a phrase. 



EXAMPLES : 

O O O xO f 

^ 



y ur 



My God give thee fortune ! 



15 ' May the mercy of God be upon 

him or her ! ' 



Ox O 

jj )\J May good luck assist him, or her ! 
is, or her, fortune be reversed ! 



68 A ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

May the hearts of your friends be 



May the abodes of our enemies be 

/ esolate , 

May Heaven grant them blessings ! 

May you never receive harm from 
the revolutions of fate ! 

f / 

ijV^i \t>o. May God give you good health ! 

o ^ ^ 

\A* C-vSi May good fortune help us ! 

119. It is by no means necessary, however, that these 
forms of the Verbs should always be employed in expres- 
sions of this kind : the Aorist alone, without any alteration 
or addition, may be, and is much more frequently, used 
optatively : indeed, except in Poetry, and on occasions of 
particular formality, it is rather pedantic to say 

T , O s 

lily; &c. ; and the Persians generally employ juib, 

o s o s 

jJlj^, &c. ; the context being of itself quite sufficient to 
shew that it is used in an optative sense. 

OF NEGATIVE VERBS. 

120. The formation of these Verbs is very simple. The 
letter d , put before any Tense, Mood, or Person of a Verb, 
makes the same Negative; excepting the Imperative, to 

x 

which the letter * must be prefixed ; as, 

. 

O " Not to Speak. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

^ > ^' 

Speak not thou. ^-^ Speak not ye. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (ll 69 



I spoke not. 

Thou hast not spoken. 

He, or she, was not speaking. 

^ O P O ,- O ^-x 

A^O J &j&j We had not spoken. 
-> o ^ T ^ 
JlxAi tXxA\a^ You will not speak. 



. ? 

jkJ Jow^J They do not speak. 

&c. &c. &c. 

OF THE PASSIVE VOICE. 

121. In the whole range of Persian Grammar (easy and 
simple as it is), there is no part perhaps so easy and simple 
as the formation of the Passive Verbs. The student has 
only to place the Past Participle of any Active Verb (which 
Past Participle is to be formed, as already stated, by changing 
the ^ of the Infinitive into s) before the different Tenses and 
Moods throughout the Auxiliary Verb ^jui " To become."* 

Is T 

For instance : let us take SAJ^, the Past Participle of 

O ^ o 9 

the Verb ^J^j " To ask," and place it, first of all, before 
the Infinitive of the Auxiliary, and we shall obtain the Com- 

O , ? sl ^ ? 

pound Infinitive ...xi *Jou. y " To be, or to become, asked "; 

" ^" 1 , 1 s T ' 

next, before the Imperative, and we shall have _yi !! '^^> " Be 

OO , O s "> ? 

thou asked/' Jo^i '^ji. " Be ye asked." 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 



SINGULAR. 



"if 



I W as asked. 



Thou wast asked. 



*xi s AJ^M^J He (or she) was asked. 



PLURAL. 



We were asked. 



You were asked. 



They were asked. 



* See the Auxiliary Verb .jJ-i , p. 52. 



70 (v.) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 



SINGULAR. 



I have been asked. 
Thou hast been asked. 

He (or she) has been 
asked. 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 



.ji4Xi*x 





> Jfcl.- 8Jou< ij 



r^ I was being asked. 
Thou was being asked. 

He (or she) was being 
asked. 

PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

I had been asked. fi^ji *'^~' 

Thou hadst been asked i^ty 

jy*^ He (or she) had been 
asked. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

I will or shall be 

asked. 
Thou wilt or shalt be 

asked. 

He or she will or shall 
be asked. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
I am being asked. 



Xx**^ Thou art being asked. 

1 ,, ~> i , > ' 

Xy-^j He (or she) is being 

asked. 



PLURAL. 

O f 

We have been asked. 



You have been asked. 
,j They have been asked. 

We were being asked. 
You were being asked . 

p They were being 
asked. 

We had been asked. 
You had been asked. 
They had been asked. 



We will or shall be 

asked. 
You will or shall be 

asked. 

They will or shall be 
asked. 



We are being asked. 

rJ You are being asked. 

They are being asked. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



71 



AORIST. 



SINGULAR. 



I may be asked. 
j JSJj-^j Thou mayst be asked. 

He (or she) may be 
asked. 



We may be asked. 
j You may be asked. 
They may be asked. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

x x O x x Q x O TO 

With J>\ , ij*-j>\ , joli , or ^j and ^J^^ ; and also with or 
without . -. 



Ox 1 , ! 1 

r 



O ' O x f O . 



I may have been asked. 



Thou mayst have been 
asked. 

j 5 J* JkXujyj He (or she) may have 
been asked. 



We may have been 
asked. 



O Ox O x O ? 



O x Ox O. 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 



, 

With ^ly, 
without o. 



or 



v* il 7 x vi . 

IMM J*-"y 6LXXAW.J 
O^ Q xOx O/ 

iXi, ji) J SiXu,-) 



r 

i can or could be 

asked. 
Thou canst or couldst 

be asked. 

He (or she) can or 
could be asked. 



ou 



asked. 

x*,J They may have been 
asked. 



; and also with or 



can or could be 
asked. 

can or could be 
asked. 

-Uu_fJ They can or could be 
asked. 



All other forms of Subjunctives and Potentials can now 
easily be imagined by the student himself. 



72 ( V T) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



OF CAUSAL VERBS. 

(1 V f ~> 
^AwJUJjJ) and Intransitive 

o , 

J*0 Verbs, there is also in Persian a species of Deriva- 

" ' ^ 
tive Verbs ^jxiMoJ*v, which may be termed " Causal," as 

the agent is forced (as it were) or caused by others to perform 
the action. In English, such meanings are expressed by two 
Verbs ; as, " I made him bring it"; " He caused me to give 
it up," &c. In Persian, generally, though not always, they 
are expressed by a single Verb ; which is derived from the 
Present Participle of the Primitive Verb denoting the action. 
The Second Person Plural of the Present Participle of the 
Primitive Verb is, then, the root from which all the Past 
Tenses, the Past Participle, and the Future Tense of the 
Causal Verb are derived ; and the Present Participle itself 
of the Primitive Verb (without a Person) is the other root 
from which the Participle Active, the Present Tense, and 
the Aorist, are formed : the first, with the final ^ attached 
to it, is the Infinitive ; and the second, the Imperative : 
and from these two, in the same manner as has already 
been stated with reference to other Verbs/ the reader will 
proceed to form the rest ; thus : 



1 " To fear." 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

/to > Fear thou. 
The Present Participle, as we have said, is formed from 

3 o o x 

the Imperative, by adding ^T ; thus : ^Ly " Fearing " ; 



* See the Rules for Conjugating a Verb, p. 47. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



73 



JLy" " I am fearing "; ^Ly " Thou art fearing "\ 

00 Ox 

''' He, or she, is fearing "; *JoL/ " We are fearing "; 

'You are fearing." This last word, by adding the final ^, 

x x 

becomes the Infinitive of the Causal Verb ^juy'Ly " To 

o Ox 

cause another to fear " or " to frighten," &c. ; ^L^J 
" Frighten thou," is the Imperative. 



INFINITIVE. 
"] " To frighten." 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



SINGULAR. 

M>J> Frighten thou. 



PLURAL. 



Frighten ye. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITF. 

OO O Ox 

I frightened. j ^JAxiLy We frightened. 



O O Ox 



0x1 O 



Ox x O O 



O 00, 



Thou frightenedst. 
j He (or she) frightened. 

COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

I have frightened. 
Thou hast frightened. 

He (or she) has 
frightened. 

PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 

O O O Ox 

I was frightening. 

O 

^c Thou wast frightening. 

x He (or she) was 
frightening. 



You frightened. 
They frightened. 



O O O 



0x0 Ox 



We have frightened. 

Ox 

You have frightened. 
They have frightened. 



^o We were frightening. 
>x You were frightening. 
JU They were frightening. 



74 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 



SINGULAR. 



O O <" O x O Ox 



I had frightened. 
Thou hadst frightened. 
JXJoyL^i' He (or she) had 



PLURAL. 

We had frightened. 
J You had frightened. 
i They had frightened. 



frightened. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 
Being, or having been, frightened. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



> 



X I am frightening. 
x Thou art frightening. 

He (or she) is 
frightening. 



AORIST. 



j I may frighten. 
Thou mayst frighten. 

He (or she) may 
frighten. 



PARI-ICIPLE ACTIVE. 

oo , 

I am frightener. 



If O , Ox 



Thou art frightener. 

He (or she) is 
frightener. 



>x We are frightening. 
ou> You are frightening. 
They are frightening. 



We may frighten. 

You may frighten. 

i They may frighten. 

We are frightener*. 

You are frightener*. 
>, 
3 They are frightener*. 



Causal Verbs have no Present or Substantive Participles. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( v ) 75 

The Causal Verb, from OoS " To run." 



INFINITIVE. 
3 To urge, or To cause to run. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

f O O x 

Cause thou to run. j <>jo\i Cause ye to run. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 
SINGULAR. 



\ S\ If he, or she, made me run. 

' -i " 

2>\ O I S\ If he, or she, made thee run. 

^ J J 

. O f 1 f "> - - 

*\ x\ \ \ ^\ 

Jl jui i J>\ If he, or she, made him, or her, run. 



PLURAL. 



x ^ - 

OOOoo^.i \ .V* ^l-lJ^ Sl If they made us run. 

''OxT x >1 ^ ^^ 

OO JoJ\j ^l^i c; l-lJ\^S'\ If they made you run. 

T-T , ~> 00 O Tx-x 

^\y\JLi\ c ,\JLj\ Jl If they made them run. 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 
SINGULAR. 

Of Ox Ox 

Perhaps I have made him, or her, run. 



3 OOO\ 2>\\ \ 5 tXil^j Perhaps thou hast made him, or her, run. 

- o x 0? "> x x 

^ \(_5" joV^j P ei> haps he, or she, has made him, or 

- ^ JJ ~J - her) run 

PLURAL. 
' ' ' I ' ' I ' 

JijsJU it w ^jLlJi OoV^j Perhaps they have made me run. 



3 x ? "> ^ "5 x 

)\O\ 5 < . A.-.v. .A tX)V^J Perhaps they have made thee run. 

j jj^ \^j 



oo 



Perhaps they have made him, or her, 
run. 



76 (vl) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 
SINGULAR. 



1\ I.\ " ., H Although he, or she, was urging me to 

J J* ^T run. 

.M Al\ J x ^ ^\ Although he, or she, was urging thee 

" ' " > ^ to run. 



to run. 

he > ^ she - was "giog him . 



or her, to run. 

PLURAL. 



tXJu tX./u\/c &a*.j^\ Although they were urging us to run. 

* t,, 

i &afc.jT\ Although they were urging you to run. 

T^X 

,\ A1 though they were urging them to 
run. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. 



O ; O ^ O 



? ^ t ^-'\J -^ V i^H'j I wish I had made thee run. 

T^T ^ ? T 

itX-Ju ^ul^C ,jl\^ I wish I had made you run. 



"> , 9 1 , , 1 t "> 

3\J \-lJ\ /iK I wish I had made them run. 






y o*^ i w * s ^ ^- e y ^ a d mac ^ e tnee run - 

T X O x ? O 

JStX-JU ^ul^\i (^^a I wish they had made you run. 

JftX-Ju y\ JulJl ^i\i I wish they had made them run. 



FUTURE TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



s O ? O ^ 



<XJ\.i\ J ^*^*^. 4^V^i Perhaps I will, or may, make thee run. 



Ferha P s l will > w ma y' make him - <w 

her, run. 

Perha P s J wi 'l <w ma y. make him, or 
her, run. 






PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (w) 77 



PLURAL. 

1 



yjL^A/e OuubLi. <xA^J Perhaps they will, or would, make us 

run. 

, PI, i * 

\.i\.l^C Oooi\^. OoVij Perhaps they will, or would, make you 

run. 

o n o ^ o ^ 

k O0\^j Perhaps they will, or would, make them 
run. 



PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



1, - O 



fi 

,S| If I do urge thee to run. 

ff 

If I do urge him, or her, to run. 

. -, ' ?' 

(_J1? fc V}X?jM If thou urgest him, or her, to run. 



PLURAL. 



^ 

J 1^ ^Vcjjiy ^Sl If we do urge him, or her, to run. 

s T ^ Q^x 

^-J 1^ 4X^0 1 >y .T\ If we do urge thee to run. 

" si Q TO^j- 

,*-J i^ tX-wo^yuljl J> \ If we do urge them to run. 



AORIST. 
SINGULAR. 



run. 



i sl1 tnou wouldst make me run. 

wouldst make him or her 



O 



I wish thou wouldst make them run. 

PLURAL. 

I wish they would make us run. 
* ' w ^ sn tne y would make you run. 
I wish they would make them run. 



78 (VA) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The reader cannot fail to observe, by the foregoing 
examples, what an infinite variety of Subjunctive Verbs 
could be formed in Persian, by the aid of the Particles, the 
Pronouns, and the changing of their positions. 



, s 

The Causal Verb, from i^j^'c^ " To pass. 



INFINITIVE. 

x 1 , ' 

jOoJA.ixS' To cause to pass. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

'ause thou to pass. OOO I Oo Cause ye to pass. 
POTENTIAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 

SINGULAR. 

? O ^ O ^ 

\ 7 w \\-j I could, or might, cause him, or her, to 
*' \ pass. 

O O y *- O " O O x 

tXJ\ O-S"\ \ ( <U*J^3 Thou couldst, or mightst, cause him, or 
' ' -^ her, to pass. 






\ LJ. J^*J ^ e> or s ^ 6 ' cou ^' or might, cause him, 
)' or her, to pass. 



PLURAL. 



t ^ > ^ 

<XJ\ .OS^U/.jl-lJ\ "v...\\.> We could, or might, cause them to pass. 

You could, or might, cause them to pass. 





could, or might, cause them to 
pass. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 

I could, or might, have caused him, or 
her, to pass. 

Thou couldst, or mightst, have caused 
him, or her, to pass. 

J\ ti^Ai \ \ ^ e ' or s ^ e> cou ^' or might, have caused 
him, or her, to pass. 






PERSIAN GRAMMAB. ( v ^) 79 



PLURAL. 



L v_. >\ . <_vS . _,j..jju-^ ;l v ,;fc ^ A-S-J^ ^ e could, or might, have caused them 

to pass. 

0-_ 

\ Wj\ ^ ou could, or might, have caused them 
to pass. 

j\ .txTt>lJu-J\L- \ UJT Thev could> or mi ght, have caused them 

to pass. 

PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 



SINOULAB. 

O O 



_.*.CV V . > L)\ T ou S ht to have caused this (thing) to 
I ' J^ pass. 

Thou ou g htst to have caused this 
(thing) to pass. 

O O 

, Ji*-J\j\ Jo\ He> or she> ou g ht to hav e caused this 
L* r ^ '^r^ (thing) to pass. 

PLURAL. 

lJ We ou S ht to have caused th ese (things) 
to pass. 

\ .WlJ\ You ou S ht to have caused these ( thin g s ) 
J to pass. 



M.y The y ou g ht to have caused these 

U , x " (things) to pass. 



PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



o o 



utXo ^ux-^cUJ ^_y I can cause thee to pass. 

^ ^.\ '. ?* ^. \ ?. ^ \ ' ~ 

O>-JijOo .11 ys-^ i-o >> Thou canst cause me to pass. 

O ^^Qx^T O^ 

\ .OO OO\4iL^\ .Ui \ He, or she, can cause us to pass. 



PLURAL. 

\y e can cause you to pass. 
wJ You can cause us to pass. 

They can cause us and you to pass. 



80 (A.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



AORIST POTENTIAL. 

SINGULAR. 



x O x O s ' 

\ OO\J O 5\ .J ^y brother can, or may, cause me to 
* s Jfi pass. 



y- " ^jj^.) $\ \ *"-3 brother can, or may, cause thee to 
, -^ \-J -F pass. 

His, or her, brother can, or may, cause 
you to pass. 



PLURAL. 



U. tNJ tXlJiyj ^V^lji They can cause my father to pass. 



. L) OO JCJ W> <MUiJi They can cause thy father to pass. 

x ^ ^ V -^ ^^ 

s s 

1 .^ji .tXj o*l*Ji3 ^uLji They can cause his.or her, father to pass. 

FUTURE, SUBJUNCTIVE, AND POTENTIAL. 

i.\y o\jJ .S\ If I can, I will cause thee to pass. 



t, thoti wouldst cause me 
to pass. 

J\4jJ .M ^ be or sbe cou ^> be or sb - e wou ld 
*3/ cause me to pass. 

PRESENT, SUBJUNCTIVE, AND POTENTIAL. 

^j \.OsG iJ oVx.** &^-jM Although I can cause thee to pass. 

> . c. , 'if -' >' 

U/c /iVj>-^ &a.jSi l Although thou canst cause me to pass. 






Although he, or she, can cause him, or 

ui w\Ji*^-/ (Xa^-o i 

JJ J~ i^ her, to pass. 

AORIST, SUBJUNCTIVE, AND POTENTIAL. 

'\ " \ \ '\ * They may perhaps be able to cause us 
to pass. 

They may perhaps be able to cause 

,^J ' IwXJ l_\--M-' I . \^J (_XJ \J 

- > ^ J you to pass. 

may perhaps be able to cause 
them to pass. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( A 81 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

O x > 



I wish I had been able to have caused 
thee to pass ! 

I wish thou hadst been able to have 
caused me to pass ! 

I wish he, or she, had been able to have 
caused him, or her, to pass ! 



PRESENT TENSE. 



-. . ' .. . f?\ 

*>\*) ^tXXJUOo \J To cause thee to pass, I can. 

C?f \ To cause him, or her, to pass, thou 
-MOu ll 

-*^ canst 

* To cause us to pass they can. 



OF INTERROGATIVE VERBS. 

123. There is no particular form employed for the pur- 
pose of putting a Verb interrogatively in Persian. In the 
English language, in which the general rule for the Affirma- 
tive, in ordinary Verbs, is, that they should come after the 
Nominative, as, " I did," " You will," " He shall," &c., 
by transposing this order, and putting the Verb before the 
Nominative, the Verb becomes Interrogative ; as, " Did 1 1" 
"Will you?" "Shall he?" But in Persian there are no 
such forms ; and Interrogatives are differently expressed. 
A Simple or a Compound Adverb of Interrogation (such as, 
1^. "Why?" ^ "How?" j "Perhaps?" ^'"When?" 
/ "Where?" (J "What place?" &c.*) is very often 
employed to express the query. 

124. The context very often shews the Verb to have been 



See the Index, for Persian Adverbs. 

M 



82 ( A f) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

interrogatively put: for instance, if I say to a person in 
Persian, j^!joL ( _ s jJiIU "You know English?" if he is a 
Persian himself, or knows the Persian language, he perceives 
at once that I am asking him whether he knows the English 
language or not. 

125. The third mode, and by far the most general, of 
asking a question in Persian, is, that the speaker softens his 
voice and expresses the Verb in an accent quite peculiar to 
the occasion, which leaves no doubt on the minds of those 
who hear him that he is asking a question : this, I believe, 
may be done, and is perhaps done in all languages, whether 
there be at the same time any particular form for expressing 
a Verb interrogatively or not. But in Persian, the Inter- 
rogation may at the same time be rendered quite complete 

0* 

and decided, by adding *>b " or not" (a Disjunctive added 
to a Negative Particle) to the end of the sentence ; thus : 

Is O ~>s O. f s 

Did your father go there, or not ?" 

Do you know [or speak] Persian, or not ? " 
&c. &c. 

126. We now proceed to conjugate a Verb Interrogatively 
with the Adverb ]#. " Why 1" 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
^JJjf " To Say," or " To Speak." 



9 

" 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



SINGULAR. 

OOP 

,_yj " Say thou." 



PLURAL. 



O O* 1 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



83 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE PRETERITE. 



SINGULAR. 

Why said I? 
Why saidstthou? 
Why said he, or she? 



PLURAL. 

^- Why said we ? 
Why said you ? 
JJiifll \j&- Why said they ? 



J <Ual 1 .a;. Why have I said ? 
-^ y 

hast thou said ? 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

IT f 

f# 



<Uo ^a- Why has he, or she, 
said? 



- Why have we said? 

s 

- Why have you said? 

i! <Ual Ls- Why have they said? 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 
Why was I saying ? 

Why wast thou saying? 



Why was he, or she, 
saying? 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

Why had I said? 
Why hadst thou said? 



jj ajul \y>- Why had he, or she, 
said? 



FUTURE TENSE. 

o o > 



or 



say 



\^j& ^>\f>-\js*. Why wilt, or shall, thou 

say? 

? n ^ 

ilji- l^a- Why will, or shall, he, 
or she, say ? 



UlMASiXAfcl 



\j. Why were we saying ? 
j^ Why were you saying ? 
j^- Why were they saying? 

Ls. Why had we said? 
\j- Why had you said? 
\j&. Why had they said? 



Why will, or shall, we 
say? 

Why will, or shall, you 
say? 

Why will, or shall, they 
say? 



84 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



SINGULAR. 



fj Jx \j&- Why say I ? 

T / *3 

i_i*x jj- Why sayest thou ? 

s 

),ir i 

iJx |^s- Why says he, or she? 



AORIST. 



Why may or should 
I say? 

Why may st or shouldst 
thou say? 

Why may or should 
he, or she, say? 



PLURAL. 
>- Why say we? 

Why say you? 
&. Why say they ? 



ju^o \j>. Why may or should 
we say? 

o 9 

JoJo K- Why may or should 
you say ? 

Why may or should 
they say ? 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 



Why am I saying? 
Why art thou saying ? 

Why is he, or she, 

saying ? 



Why are we saying ? 
Why are you saying? 
Why are they saying ? 



ACTIVE OR SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. 

Why am I sayer? J\ JiiJU^ \j~ Why are we sayer#? 



Why art thou sayer? 

Why is he, or she, 
sayer ? 



Jol 



Why are you sayer? 



Jo! *J>^) ]/ Why are they sayer*? 



OOx s~>,"l? 



[N. B. When the Interrogative Particle ]^- is placed before 
a Verb (as in the above instance), the Disjunctive Negative 

Ox 

&\> cannot be added to the end of the sentence.] 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( Af> ) 85 

OF COMPOUND VERBS. 



127. The Persian Verbs are very often compounded with 
Nouns, either Substantive or Adjective ; with Participles ; 

1x f "> - ' 

with Prepositions ; or with other Particles ; as, ^p ( ^S M 
"To speak" or "to utter words;" ^ily^b "To seek 
justice"; ^J^^M 'To do good," or, "To exercise 

Tx^OO 1 ,1 1Z? 

virtue"; ^J-i^Ujo " To become sick"; ^.yLs-L.,^ "To make 

O s O T_ O s ' 

happy " ; ^iasrul i^JJj " To mix colours," or " To be de- 

1s 11s 1 X Ox ? 

ceptive"; ^.x^ J^t^ " To be," or " become, a searcher"; 

? x P O ? 

c/i^ "To be walking" or "travelling, in quest of"; 

jjL " To sit smiling "; ^Hb " To go up "; ^l 
To come down"; JjJ^j " To rise"; &c. &c. 



128. The Persian Verbs of Arabic extraction are always 
Compounds of an Arabic Verbal Noun, Participle, or Adjec- 
tive, and a Persian Verb, which, in all its inflexions, is joined 
to the other ; the former expressing the meaning in abs- 
tract ; and the latter deciding the Mood, the Tense, and 
the Person of the Verb. The Arabic words so compounded 
undergo, of course, no inflexions. 

129. The Verbs chiefly used in these combinations, espe- 
cially when Arabic words are adopted, are, 



To do, or To make. vfij To bring. 



To devour, or ,jtU/ To draw, or 

To suffer. To undergo. 



To have. (J**^" T make. 

> slf 1, 

To strike. ^ To order. 



o xmx '' s '' * s 

To come, or c ,jjJ ; i, c; xio, c |Jii To be changed into, 

To become. or become. 



86 ( A> 1) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



o ,o, 

To bear. i> To take. 



To shew. iJlj To find. 



O xO 



O X O )> 

i- To wish, or To ask. ij-^?- To search, or To find. 

Oj> O x O x 

To be. .-*^ To sit. 



EXAMPLES. 

O x O xO O 

To complete. ^bi^S j}j>\ To expect. 



O x Ox O O 



To return. cJ 1 ^ iW- To envy. 

=- t*a. To be grieved. ^jxilt) jlsJc! To believe. 

To apologize. U^J)^ ff^ ^- assau ^. 

To be astonished. ^j c^o^o To strike. 

O x ' _ O 

To be beneficent. jj^ol J^3 To appear. 

To take 
To find fault. ,.|J^ , .ai.^ To be sick. 



* To be sorrowful. ^yUL) |._j/sr To find (others) dis- 

appointed. 

130. The student will observe, that, in forming these 
Compounds, he need not always be restricted to special 
Persian Verbs in combination with any particular Arabic 

s9 ^ o x-o o ^ T x o^- o >. 

word ; for ^^^M , ^ii-L^Ui', jjyy.Li all mean "To com- 
plete/' as well as jO^US ; and in the same manner, as 

1xO^"5 *3 ' T^O O *3 OxTO^'^x')^ O x^ ? ^ x T ^ OxOx' 1 ^O^ 

^d^ttfiil, ^al^JjjBfiyuj j yjjjJ^tiLo, ^JtS**, l . r UiJ r ^u < , as 

Ox x") O 

well as ^jjyt^UaiJl would signify " To expect "; as would 

O xOxO '^ O x --_ o OxT^O O O X O x- O 

^^jUIcl, ^a^TalSXcl , ^j^jUicI, ( ji*.bi>Uicl all alike signify 

OxxO ^ 0.x- "x-' ^ x' Oxf " - ' ' 

' To believe"; just as 



. 

-^s*, and U 'V.^/ V^^j all may mean 
To wonder," or " To be astonished": and so with the 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



( AV ) 87 



rest, &c. In fact, these Persian Verbs, when united with 
any Arabic word so as to form a Compound Verb, in many 
instances completely lose their own primitive meanings, and 
serve merely as Auxiliaries, to shew, as already observed, the 
Arabic Verbs to be in the same inflexions as themselves. 

131. The following exhibit a few examples of the Com- 
pound Verbs of both kinds, Persian and Persian, and 
Persian and Arabic united. 



JO 



COMPOUND VERB BOTH PARTS PERSIAN. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
" To Watch," or " To keep Watch." 

IMPERATH'E MOOD. 



SINGULAR. 



Watch thou. 



PLURAL. 

o 

i^U Watch ye. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. ACTIVE VOICE. 
SIMPLE PRETERITE. 



l< j 



I watched. 
j Thou watchedst. 



si 

<Ui!o 



He, or she, watched. 

COMPOUND PRETERITE 



{j"\J We watched. 

l^~lj You watched. 

o 

I^U They watched. 



I have watched. 
Thou hast watched. 

He, or she, has 
watched. 



,j 



x J ) 

<Uib (j*b We have watched. 

x O O 

j! &Vu>b |^/~u You have watched. 

'V x O O 

Jl <JXib (^U They have watched. 



88 (AA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



SINGULAR. 



0x0 O O 



OO O O 



I was watching. 
Thou wast watching. 



O O O 



0x00 O 



LT 

'->,- O ') 

Aiito (ji 

o x o o 

> Mib , . 



*Ai He, or she, was 
watching. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE, 
o 

b I had watched. 



PLURAL. 

o 
^~lj We were watching. 

o 

^/~b You were watching. 
They were watching. 



Thou hadst watched. 

He, or she, had 
watched. 



JoJy 



FUTURE TENSE. 

o o oo 

I will or shall watch. 



*JJ*U- i 



o o oo 



b 



">, O O 






x 

1 Jo 



Thou wilt or shall 
watch. 

He, or she, will or 
shall watch. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

vb Having watched. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

.b I watch. 

.b Thou watchest. 

,b He, or she, watches. 

AORIST. 

b I may watch. 

-b Thou mayst watch. 

.b He, or she, may watch. 



,[ We had watched. 
,b You had watched. 
.b They had watched. 



*[> We will or shall 

v 

watch. 
*b You will or shall 

V 

watch. 

vb They will or shall 
watch. 



o o o 



We watch. 
You watch. 
They watch. 

We may watch. 
You may watch. 
They may watch. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



89 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE SELDOM USED. 
SINGULAR. 

O 11 

(j*U I am watching. f^l/^ 

y*\j Thou art watching. 

tt*h He, or she, is watch- 
ing. 



PARTICIPLE ACTIVE. 

oo 

L I am watcher. 



lj Thou art watcher. 
.b He, or she, is watcher. 



r*- 1 



PLURAL. 

o 

M,(J We are watching. 

o 

wO You are watching*. 

o 

)*u They are watching. 



,i*, 



We are watcher*. 
J You are watcher*. 
~U They are watcher*. 



The Verb 



To Hunt." 



O ^ x O^, O 

Jb\j**j>j 

O O x ^ O 

. J^Vj S.i ,i l$C^ &i 
<^? ->> , " 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

COMPOUND PRETERITE. 

SINGULAR. 



Perhaps I may have hunted. 
*i Perhaps thou mayst have hunted. 



Perha P s he - w she - 

hunted. 



have 



PLURAL. 



O1 O x O x 1 ,, Ox 

.Xljl.) J(3 .S^.Vxij \^ O^V^j Perhaps we may have hunted. 
J &5 j^l5C) &j OoV^j Perhaps you may have hunted. 

o - 

&i OO\i Perhaps they may have hunted. 



2 5 



N 



90 .) PERSIAN GRAMMAB. 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 
SINGULAR. 

*1 

have been hunting. 



Thou mayst have been hunting. 

o ^ o o ^ *' 

.So-c j^j w 4XijU He - or she > ma y have been huntin s- 



PLURAL. 

We may have been hunting. 



You may have been hunting. 
They may have been hunting. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. 

Had I, or if I had hunted. 



r^' _ . 

Hadst thou, or if thou hadst, 
hunted. 

Had he, or she, or if he or she, 
had hunted. 

PLURAL. 

Had we, or if we had hunted. 



(**>' 

1 - O j O O ^' 

Had you, or if you had hunted. 
Had they, or if they had hunted. 



FUTURE TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



j> Jb \ak ^-tj ^ Although I would or should hunt. 



Although thou wouldst or shouldst 
hunt. 

Although he, or she, would or 
should hunt. 



> 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ' ) 91 



PLURAL. 

Althou g h we would or should 

hunt. 

Althou s h y u would w should 

hunt. 

Although they would or should 
hunt. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

Although having been hunted. 



PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



\ If I do hunt. 

_x 

^ Xj \ If thou dost hunt. 



If he, or she, does hunt. 

PLURAL. 



5 -, ?, 1 > T-> 

*.XAXJs<i j^Cj S\ If we do hunt. 

' O ) 0_x.' 

If you do hunt. 



^c 



O O 



If they do hunt. 



AORIST. 

SINGULAR. 



That I may hunt. 



That thou mayst hunt. 
That he, or she, may hunt. 

PLURAL. 

O T f O 

oJvj ^-ll3 That we may hunt. 
That you may hunt. 
That they may hunt. 



92 (If) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

SINGULAR. 



^j\J ijUi yxi> I should, or may be hunting. 

^ i . s~ i / A Thou shouldst, or mayst be hunt- 
U^ J \ ing. 

Vi^ l^-*v ^- e ' or s ' ie> si 101 *!^ <"" ma y ^ e 

^ ^ , hunting. 

PLURAL. 

Q Q O ^,0 

o^ij\J /.jlJo ^li* We should, or may be hunting. 
You should, or may be hunting. 



s , 

OOi_i-u (^uS j^wl) They should, or may be hunting. 



PARTICIPLE ACTIVE. 

SINGULAR. 



'" ''''!'''{/ 

+*j itXxjo .iSs-ij I may become a hunter. 

O s O ^ ^. O 

Thou mayst become a hunter. 



Y> <XuS .^2-> He, or she, may become a hunter. 

PLURAL. 

r> ">' '?'>.y 

*J4^j 2(oJoS .\^i) We may become hunters. 



Jo -j ^OooS i\i~ij You may become hunters. 

^/ 

.^ij They may become hunters. 






The Verb J &*\J " To tor^e a Letter." 



POTENTIAL. MOOD. 
SIMPLE PRETERITE. 

SINGULAR. 



"v w \\.") a^Vj I could or might write a letter. 

\ * 




Thou couldst or might write a 
letter. 

He, or she, could or might write 
a letter. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (\ P) 93 



PLURAL. 

11 OO O sis 



* > V ** We could or might write a letter. 

s " \ s 

'J O o sis 

j tXxL-J^ ^ You could or might write a letter. 

1 'IS 1 XT,. 

3 OxL-J^f &*U They could or might write a letter. 



COMPOUND PRETERITE. 
SINGULAR. 






jy .! Xx-Jy &^,\j I have been able to write a letter. 

* s ' * 

Thou hast been able to write a 
letter. 

He> ^ she> has been ab;le to write 
a letter. 



PLURAL. 

si 



si, 

j o & &*,V!> We have been able to write 

letter. 



x, 

Oo\ xL-J^J ^\j You have been able to write a 



letter. 

le > r ha 
letter. 



x3 le > r have been able to write a 



PRETERITE IMPERFECT. 

SINGULAR. 

I could have written, or might be 
writing, a letter. 

Thou couldst have written, or 
might be writing, a letter. 

He, or she, could have written, or 
might be writing, a letter. 

PLURAL. 



' 1 - 11s 

lxiy oo J\JOw Xlj We could have written, or might 

be writing, a letter. 

1 1 > s 1 1 s 

l^y JooL^jWjLfo x,\j You could have written, or might 

be writing, a letter. 



j They could have written, or 
might be writing, a letter. 



94 Ot ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 
SINGULAR. 

could, or might, have had writ- 
ten a letter. 

o o ^ o . 




Thou couldst ' or mi g ht . have had 
written a letter. 



\ J X\J He, ^ sne > could ' or might, have 
had written a letter. 

PLURAL. 

We could - f mi g ht - have had 

written a letter. 



iaj \lijJ tXxi J\*5 &*U You could> or mi S ht> have had 
-F written a letter. 






3 &li)3 Ood-3\J ftU The y could ' w might, have had 
^ <7 written a letter. 



FUTURE TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 



3\3 jji>\&. &<l3 I shall be able to write a letter. 



.i ^,. ...\\.l ub\^. J0c\j 



Thou wilt be able to write a 
letter. 

O -5 1 1 s 1 ' "Is rT -11 1,1 

\\ He, or she, will be able to write 
a letter. 

PLURAL. 

XV!> We shall be able to write a letter. 
Xl3 You will be able to write a letter. 
lO'-i-j 3 y!V--W> 4\x&u^. Xu They will be able to write a letter. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. 

'\r I can write, or am able to write, 
a letter. 

O O s ^ 1 s 




' 







Thou canst write, or art able to 
write, a letter. 

\ He, or she, can write, or is able 
to write, a letter. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ) 95 



PLURAL. 

O x O o 



We can write, or are able to write 



* \ ( \^\ t \j. x^j You can write, or are able to write 
Jr ^T^* a letter. 



ite, or are able to 
write a letter. 



AORIST, POTENTIAL. 
SINGULAR. 



s OO O 



._,_. > . V> txA-> &/\J I must, or ought to write a letter. 

Thou must, or oughtst to write a 
letter. 

He, or she, must, or ought to 
write a letter. 



to write a letter. 

You may be able to write a 
letter. 

i i i l\\ "\ x'\\ They may be able to write a 

^^.ww *J CXA-? ' V* iVic ^ , 

-^ letter. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

SINGULAR. 



o . 



o o o 



I must or should be writing a 
letter. 

Thou must, or shouldst, be writ- 
ing a letter. 

He, or she, must or should be 
writing a letter. 

PLURAL. 



3 We could be writing a letter. 
OoOUJ ^jl Ji &^\J You could be writing a letter. 
They could be writing a letter. 



96 (1l) PERSIAN GRAMMAR 



ACTIVE FARTIOItB, 



^t*\J &<U ,. ^ 3<j>>x..i..'w' Jw v V" * I must be the writer of this letter. 



Thou must be the writer of this 
letter. 



v V x \ - > \ \ '< v M > ^ M- <"" S ^- niust be the writer of 
X_ O Xc ^ . vJ . Js.v ' J O.; vj \ 

*"- ~J . '* this letter 



this letter 

PLVRAL. 




Vo " ^^ :" ""s*' '" 

been the writers of this letter. 

v,,_.. J .>V < \.*. A They should, or ouijht to haw 
* ^ been the writers of this letter. 



The Verb ^.N ^ ^. , " 7'or V . 



. ^iXi To be, or to become, envied. 

1NPUAT1VK MOlMX 
SIMPLE PRETERTTK 






enned. 



MAHAL. 






j Jj: v^j klX^. We were envied. 



^-J-l Jj CJLt; Thoa wast envied. Jj jJ^ sJ^ s^JLl^ You were envied. 

J-i *J^CXi y . He, r she, was envied.! ..vj^i s^CJLl. They were envied. 



OOMPWSn rRETERTTE. 



I have been envied, 






i Thou hast been envied. 



He. or she. has been 
envied. 



We 






._ . You have been envied. 



_v h)ii .... _ They have been 



BHM ' 



PKRSIAN GRAMMAR. 



07 



SINGULAR 



Ox f O O xO? 



< ^ 

*/ I was being envied. 



IMPERFECT TE*M 

PI. I UAL. 

OOf O O xOf 00 x 

J^Cl; We were being envied. 

>O f O OxO 'OOx 



OxOfOOx 



A*LIdi!2' T" 1011 wast b^B 
envied. 

He, or she, was being 
envied. 

PRETERITE PLUPERFECT. 

OxO'OOx O OOfOx- f OxOfOOx 

I had been envied. 



.L.V' > Ai iLtjfLZ 



i lOJtCfti T 11011 hadst been 
envied. 

x ' Ox 

tuj He, or she, had been 
envied. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

f Ox OxOfO Ox 

*>j I shall be envied. 






i (_$*'.>* ^j^j Thou wilt be envied. 



iJJ&Iji- Si^Ji^iy He, or she, will be 
envied. 



You were 
envied. 

They were being 
envied. 

We had been envied. 
You had been envied. 
They had been envied. 

We shall be envied. 

O O OxOf 1 O x 

4\JAi^i- XJ^ALiy You will be envied. 

OOx OxO'OOx 

'j{*~t>j They will be envied. 



iLZj I am being envied. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

T3 X ') ') f f . 



^Ciy Thou art being envied. 

, , O -.xOfo Ox 

i^AxJy He, or she, is being 
envied. 



OOx x O 0x0 ^O O 



,, 0,0f00x 



AORIST. 
. 8i)^jbvi; I may become envied. 

O x xOf ' x 

' ajj^i, Th u mayst become 
envied. 

Oxx Ox")fOOx 

i; He, or she, may be- 
come envied. 



Ox "xO'O 



O Ox O xO ""O O x 

Jjv 



OOx x OxO f O O 



r**j We are being envied. 
&MJ You are being envied. 
They are being envied. 



We may become 
envied. 

You may become 
envied. 



iy They may become 
envied. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

x -.ff o T X 

sJ^ C-Li y . Having been envied. 



98 



PERSIAN GKAMMAE. 



1 s f 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PUIRAL. 

)j**j Joli, We may perhaps be- 
come envied. 
Perhaps thou wast 



SINGULAR. 

Perhaps I was envied. > 



envied. 

x 

oli Perhaps he, or she, 
was envied. 



Perhaps I was being 
envied. 

Joli Perhaps thou wast 
being envied. 

lioli Perhaps he, or she, 
was being envied. ' 

&C. &C. &C. 



OO * O O 



You may perhaps be- 
come envied. 

They may perhaps 
become envied. 



If we are being envied . 

If you are being 
envied. 

If they are being 
envied. 



The reader will have now no difficulty, according to the 
models before him, in forming any Compound, whether of 
Arabic extraction or otherwise, as he pleases. 



132. AN ALPHABETICAL SERIES 

OF 

VERBAL NOUNS, OR SIMPLE PERSIAN INFINITIVES, 
WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE IMPERATIVES. 



INFINITIVE. 

O * '> 



To stitch 
To offend 
To repose 
To disturb 
To excite 
To steep 



IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE. 



ki.... 



<Li 



To create 
To warn 
To stuff 
To stain 
To come 
To learn 



IMPERATIVE. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



99 



NFINITIVE. IMPERATIVE. ( INFINITIVE. 


IMPERATIVE. 


-ixO_ _ 0x00 


o o 


(ji^.-el To mingle jtt^' > c/^H To sift 


j+>. 


O - O _ OO ^ < O x O 


o 


tl) I:?jl To suspend j>.y 


^iXA.iU To scatter 


cA 


x OOx 00, 


xO 


o 


^Jo ; ,1 To be worth Jj\ 


,jX*jlj To guard 


^ 


0,0? 0" | xO? 





(jiilii! To fall C^Jl 


(jj>j)u To strain 


ij^k 


O x O Ox O Ox 


0,0 ; 


O x 


j^ii-I^Ji To elevate jlr* 


y/ssr, To cook 


>TJ 


O x Ox O O , 


O x O xx 


Oxx 


^LiLj! To hoist j}.>] 


cJ' i ^*^/i To worship 


l *^"lS: 


- ,0*1, Ox 


Ox OO^ 


oo; 


^jOjls! To increase t_?jj' 


{i)^"ji To ask 


uryi 


O,o^, O Ox 


x Ox 


x 


.j-jfjjl To squeeze jU*sl 


cl'Htf To fly 


J-i 


O ' xOx O xOx 


o x o; y 


0? 7 


.jj^jt To fling u^t 


ttl^^jjv To investigate 


iSjji 


x Ox ', 


O x OO^ 


O -P 


,.^iUi! To store jUil 


^jiiJw^j To rot 


LTJi 


0,0 o, > '' 


O x 9 O x 


OO x 


^.jis-ljjl To throw jljol 


i i rM/?.'^i To accept 


J?. 1 *} 


0x0 fo- 00^0, 


OxOxOx 


OxOx 


-i-<iiol To treasure ii^t 
i/ j JJ 


( jA*w^*j To join 


"^ 


,0 T 00 


X0?0x 


, 


(jXil^Jl To suppose j\&\ 


cJ^x^^v To measure 


(_jLx,__) 


OxO OQT Oxo 


O 


^jCwjJ To stand Vl>ijl j (ifV^ To twist 


L M V 


I 




0x0 ' xO 


^ 


(jji-lj To play ji> |^*"^ To gallop 


jt' 


x O O f O OxO 


O 


yjJo^b To rain j[> 


^iJj|u To run 


jb" 


O xO O 


0x0 


O 


tlJ i5'j To weave i_b 


jjist To shine 


i ifV 


0x0 Q , T _ 


O x 


yjiUlb To exult Jlj 


(jJjdJ To palpitate 


Sr^ 1 ' 


xO7 1x 


O.x OOx 


OOx 


yjO^j To carry j 


^JAujy To fear 


u~>' 


0x0? -,. 


xO Ox 


O Ox 


cJ'Hr'. To cut _> 


^jjuLw^i' To frighten 


^^WW^J 


O x O x OOx 


xO 




ti j.i*uj To bind jju 


jjiXxjla- To masticate 


-^a^_ 


0x0? 00?i OxOx 


O 


yjiXJo^j To smell ^^j ( Jtuu- To leap 


&>. 



100 (I..) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



INFINITIVE. IMPERATIVE. 


INFINITIVE. IMPERATIVE. 


Ox t 00? 


X O 


o 


.JAM**. To search *-Sf?~ 


^J^jjys- To sleep 


1 il.^- 


O x OO ? O ? 


O x O 


o 


^JOJU?- To shake S-^r~ 


^jjjbl^i- To cause to sleep 


J^f" 


o x O O ? O O ? 


0x0 


o 


yjiXxilus- To stir ijV^T" 


ij** 1 *'^*" To desire 


!y- 


xOO O 


O xo x 


O x 


^tXwl^a- To urge to leap {J^~ 


jjiJ^/*- To purchase 


> 


O xO o ? O O ? 


O xO x 


x 


^JuOja- To search i-0?" 


aJ^j^~ To creep 


>* 


x ox 


O xO ^ 


of 


,.iJo .- To graze .. 

^y **yv *xv 


jjtXxuixi- To repose I 


^x>^JJ.?fc- 


*> x O x Ox 


xO x 


x 


(j*^**]/^ To cause to graze <;!/=*- 


^iXili- To prick 


(> 


OxOOx OOx 


Ox OO X 


OOx 


yj^^M*- To stick S-~~=r 


jjJOiXii- To laugh 


^ 


OxOOx oOx 


0,0 Ox 


O Ox 


.jiXuliUwo- To glue ,Uuj^-- 
y .. .y tiJ v^ v 


jj JijJl JOi- To cause to laugh 

1 


c;''^- 


xO x ox 


, 


O 


^jiiodi- To prick jj,i. 


j-jiilt) To give 


SJ 

x 


x Ox Ox 


x O 


O 


u i\jui- To bend .=- 


.jXiilt} To have 

1 


^b 


O x O x Ox 


Oxo 


o 


^jiXwLki- To double down ..iL**- 


^.jXjjj't) To know 


Ji> 


xT x Ox 


O xO 7 


Ox 


jjJokAs- To taste LJ"^ 


yjiJiytJ To reap 


V? 


OxOx Ox 0x0 





yjiWi^s- To cause to taste ,jUUs^ 


..iJo^J To rend 


>>x 


O x O x Ox 


,0 o'? 


00? 


jjiXixsv. To drop ^-^-7 


jjJotJjJ To steal 


yt 


x O x Ox 


0x0 x 


O x 


jjJoulxsj- To cause to drop (J^- 


,jJ>x<iJ To blow 


r j 


O x O x Ox 


0x00? 


00? 


(jiXx^s- To walk proudly .^rj- 


^Ji-.J To sew 


Jj j 


0x0 00 


Ox 00? 


00? 


yjiXxs- To pick or select u^ 


^Joijt) To milk 


U^J J 


O x o O O 


x Ox 


Ox 


^.^Uili- To rise Jjji- 


yjJojJ To run 


J J 


O x O O 


O x O 


o o 


^Jo,!*- To itch jli- 


.jjoj To see 


trH 


0x0 


0x0 


O 


j^Joul^li- To scratch j];'*" 


..ijoli To drive 


id]; 


xo 


Ox Ox 


oo x 


..iJckjti- To bite .jli. 


..vij*.^ To shine 


A 

, M^J*- 1 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(I.I) 101 



NPINITIVE. IMPERATIVE. 


INFINITIVE. IMPERATIV 


Ox o " O* 


xOO P f s 


ti ji"'J To grow i_SY; 


jjjjyjw To sing L^]/" 


O x x O 


OxO ^ OOf 


..Juwi To scape ^ 


(jiiw To bore l- **u 


0x0, Ox 


xO , 0, 


(jiio*^ To arrive \^j~j 


^J.jJU.ku To think (J^~w 


0x0 00 


O x f O 


"* A rri 

rtf^**'j lo spin Lj**v 


^jjyw To pound ^Lu 


OxV Ox 


Ox" Ox 


ur^; To y 


(jiXi To become yb 


O x Of O Of 


0,0, , 


i^pi-J; To sweep "-Hv 


^.JW&i To break ^.^Li 


x Ox Ox 


,0 


yjJot^ To startle , , 


.jislijii To cleave i__j(^i 


x O x Ox 


O x" 5 ** O O c 


^iXuU; To scare c) >* 


jiaCii To bloom d-^aCi 


0,0 o o 


0,0 T 


i*rk**l.) To spin LJ*H/ 


( jA-U < i To recognise ^Ixi 


x 


O xO? o 


yjjy To bring forth j; 


^jO-xt^i To count iLjii 


Ox 


xO Ox 00, 


yjiijjjj To bear young i_f|; 


.ot\AsVc To rejoice ^Lc 


0x0 


''xO ! f Iff 


i-j<^ij]j To lament ^J/' 


Jii-jy To sell ^J.,j 


,0?x 


Oxf f 


^iJjOj To rub off iJ'^J 


^^ji To increase i.?]/' 


O ., O 


x O O O 


iJivuJj To live (^ 


(.jjjuji To deceive ( *^ s ir' 


O x O T 


OxO/ 'o ' 


^iX*jU To rub ^vww 


yjt^iJ To squeeze j(i 


O x ^ O 


s 
O x O x OQ, 


^J^x*. To commit ,>*"" 


yjjx^s To understand ^j 


.jii-Lu To make ;L 


,0 

^.jiil^ To plant ,1^ 


,0 ^ , ? 


0x0 T 


U-ii-jXuj To stuff ^ji*" 


jjjjjl^ To hollow out jl/ 


0,0 


0,0 o 


,jiiJLxu/ To take jj^-i** 1 


^JokfcL^ To decrease lili 


xO* 


3 ,0x Of 


^J .X*, To praise <juL*i 


d J/ To do ^ 


O x O O 


O x O x OOx 


** ' TV ' A 

(.jAwtfBAM i u mix . uij jt*> 


^.yLi^ To become 0^ 


,0 x 


x OOx OOx 


jJuu]^ To chant i^\^ 


^JoJ.^ To turn round &J> 



102 (i.r) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



INFINITIVE. 



IMPERATIVE, INFINITIVE. 



IMPERATIVE. 



tlJ xiki To sow jS 


^O^o To die 


,- f 


^ . 


^.jXiJ To kill (^^p^ 


^lioCc To suck 


o ^ o , o , 




^iXxi/ To draw .JXS" 


^Jojli To coquet 


O x OO .- ** ,- 


, , 


.jJoAJi^ To stink JOL 


^JoJU To complain 


o . o - ' 


- 


^jjjtf To dig ^ 


^JiXol) To name 


o.o y > 


O x- 


(r^j^ TO ^ ea * ^**y 


^jJl-> To place 

^^ X 


x ." 00.' 




^Jok^i.^ To strive O~}^ 


,ji<-iJ To sit down 


'y ^ 


'' ^ O o 


..jjo 5 To sting or bite 5 

^^ ^/ j/ 


^jJo&jL) To reproach 


xo f 00 , 


,0f 


jjjj^ To chose ( J^ 


^J^j To show 


. f Of 


oo, I,', 


^tAu& To snap (J*i*> 


^Joi^y' To roll 


' ^ 






^jAwjJ To write 


, r \ To loose i_^Li^ 


, 


^' 


..j'J^' T place 
^^ ^ 


0.0 < 


x nf 


^Jisfc To speak ^^ 


(jii^J To conceal 


_ 


,0 ^ 


..jJoksit To boast t__j.i 


c^'Hi^J r ^ exerc i se 


^JjjJ To tremble !/ 


''V 

lil y^J To blow 




,, 


,jiX!|*l To slip J! 


tl ^* kil To let down 


o ^ o o^ oo,, 


o^ o 


^Jj^ii To limp c^XiJ 


^jiXlju To long for 


,0 


o x o 


^JoiLc To rub JU 


j.fiib To find 


0^0 


0,0 


yjJoU To remain ^U c;^- T ^ P rou( ^ 



<o 



PEKSIAN GRAMMAR. 0P) 103 



COMPOUND ADJECTIVES, 

AND 

THE NATURE OF THEIR COMPOSITION. 



133. This is a very extensive and useful class of Com- 
pounds in Persian. They are formed in three ways: By 
placing a Substantive before a Contracted Participle (Active 

o O s ^ o 9 " O s^ 

or Passive) ; as, ^Jl ^U-=- " world-creating " ; ^j I being a 



* f ' 

contraction of *.XJLW/| , " Creator," the Active Participle of 

^ Q '_ 

jj^T " To create." By prefixing an Adjective to a Sub- 

1,00 

stantive; as, J^.j^j^ "sweet-tongued": or, By adding one 

O^O^- o - 

Noun Substantive to another ; as, _/jo ^^ " fairy-formed." 



134. However susceptible these Compounds may appear 
of unlimited extent, they must still be restricted within cer- 
tain bounds. We must not attempt to form new and 
arbitrary Compounds ; but be content with the use of such 
only as are already to be found in the works of writers of 
authority (who are, after all, our best guides in all languages), 
or with those which are in common use among the educated 
Natives of Persia. 

135. It is a mistake, to suppose " that these Compounds 
may be, multiplied without end, according to the pleasure and 
taste of the writer." Those who hold this opinion have, 
indeed, attempted many new formations, of which they have 
given long lists in their works ; but the beginner must be very 
cautious how he adopts any of them, for they cannot safely 
be relied on. Even in the selection of Compounds unques- 
tionably legitimate, some judgment is required in their ad- 
aptation to different occasions. Many of them, though com- 
posed of different words, imply the same meaning ; and the 



104. 



PERSIAN GKAMMAR. 



writer's taste, certainly, must here be judiciously exercised. 

Ox ,, T^ OO^ Q^^TOO O O P O O O TyOO 

For instance, li-a V^y ^u^- /^trf Jt) u>J~> 

O xO,x 

j./aj^i &c. &c., are all Compound Adjectives, employed to 
express sweetness of mouth, the beauty and the elegance of 
manner in which an admired object joins in discourse ; but 
they are not all indiscriminately and equally applicable to 
every occasion : study and experience can alone guide the 
selection. 

136. These Compounds may be formed with two Persian 
words, two Arabic words, or one Persian and one Arabic 
word. Of the last-mentioned kind, are all those that are com- 
posed of an Arabic Noun and a Contracted Participle ; for 
the Participle must always be Persian : and for distinction 
sake, we call these "Compound Epithets," of which the 
following afford a few Examples : they are by far the most 
extensive class of Compounds in the Persian language. 



137. COMPOUND EPITHETS. 



11^1 

..xx- >V$.^. World-conquering. 

1 1 , 1 f X 

Enemy-enslaving. 
Pearl-scattering. 
Amber-scented. 
Hero-overthrowing. 

.\j \ \3 Heart-afflicting. 

i i, i p^. 

-\_'*\ VS Rose-scattering. 

Shame-stricken. 



1 X ' 

**J 



Assembly-adorning. 

Soul-refreshing. 

Heart-soothing. 

Fault-forgiving. 

Delight-increasing. 

Town-disturbing. 

Being covered with 
dust. 

Blood-shedding. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(l.o) 105 



World -illumina- 
ting. 

Fear-increasing. 

Dread-inspiring. 

Battle-seeking. 

Early-rising. 

Self-indulging. 

Light-spreading. 
Stranger - cherish- 



Heart-expanding. 
Perfume-diffusing. 

. o 

IjW Soul-creating. 

O 9 

*^ Sweet-singer. 



World-brightening. 

' 'V Darkness - dispel- 
3 ^^^ ling. 

I '_ Rank (of battle) 
-breaking. 

C5O V Grief-dispersing. 



&c. &c. &c. 



\ M..W 



Fairy-faced. 
Angelic-disposition. 

O 

_j^j Lion-hearted. 

1IC \^ Generous -disposi- 
tion. 

Rose-bud mouthed. 



COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. 

38. Adjectives compounded of two Nouns-Substantive, 
both Arabic, both Persian, or one of each ; thus : 

Of noble birth. 
Kingly-pomp. 

Justly-disposed. 

. ^ Melancholy - mind- 
ed. 



Jessamine-scented. 



x OOP 



5 



Army numerous as 
stars. 



Perspicuous in 
speech. 



j Ruby-lipp'd. 

I <- 

o o ^ 

mi a a a II. \ 

ij^* YJ^ Resembling the sea. 

s 

k. ;*J^J Eloquent in discourse. &c. &c. &c. 



106 (1.1) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



139. Adjectives and Substantives together forming Com- 
pound Adjectives : 



9 O O f 



Handsome-faced. 
Pure-hearted. 

,^)j ,*>!-*) Simple-minded. 
j^>^. Well-disposed. 



: ^ _jj. Right-minded (be- 
j^- W nevolent). 

^ .' Pleasant - chanting 
(warbling). 



(Jjj Ocij) Ugly-faced. 

O O O ^,0 ^ 

J^ Cn^*-J Hard-hearted. 
* 

s 
^ 9^s ^99 

y\ (^Jb 3 Sour-browed. 



Pure-minded. 

Good- (^. pure-) 
-natured. 



Black-eyed. 



CJ -j 



C \ 

Q 9 r > 



O T 
-> 



x 

VjLc. 



Sweet-tongued. 
Red-faced. 

Grey-haired. 

Ill- (lit. crooked-) 
-tempered. 

Bitter in speech. 

Sharp-witted. 

Swift-footed. 

Ill-mannered. 

Pure-natured. 

Of good-morals. 
Clear in judgment. 
Broken-hearted. 



&c. &c. &c. 



140. The vast number of Epithets and Adjectives which 
are capable of being combined after these three forms, and 
which are often used, especially in the Plural Number, as 
Substantives, without any Noun being expressed, renders 
the Persian language exceedingly rich, and particularly 
adapted to poetical writings. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( I v ) 107 

NOUNS COMPOUNDED WITH PARTICLES. 



141. There are several significant Particles in Persian, 
which, when prefixed or added to Nouns, form another ex- 
tensive class of Compounds. 

(1) The Particle ^ " together," or " with/' prefixed to 
Nouns, implies " society/' " intimacy/' " sympathy," " fel- 
lowship," &c. &c. ; as, 

Being in the same house, or fellow-lodgers. 



^& Being associates. 

o ^ o ^ 

* tX^A (tt.) Breathing together, i. e. being intimate. 

>j<X*J& Sympathizing ; (lit.) Feeling the same pain. 

Being in the same school together, i.e. school- 
fellows. 

Having the same secret, or being confidants. 

U~,X+j} Lying on the same pillow, i.e. being bed-fellows. 
&c. &c. &c. 

(2) The Particles li "not/' ^ "without," and ^ " little," 
are placed before Nouns to denote scarcity or privation ; as, 



Ignorant. 



-, -> o 



3-flcU Unmanly. 

o 

iA)\j Unclean. 



nation. 

T^ 1 , n 



Useless. 



Irreligious. 

Careless. 

With little experi- 



ence. 

Senseless. \^j Jf Of little value. 

Without discrimi- 



x^ 

Jj tr Thin- 



&c. &c. See. 



bearded. 



Of little resource. 



108 (I. A) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

NAMES OF AGENTS. 

142. The modern Persians have very extensively taken 
their names of Agents from the Arabic in precisely the same 
form as is used by the Arabs, of which several instances are 
to be found in the list of the simple significant words at the 
beginning of this work*: but the Persian names of Agents 

are properly formed by prefixing Nouns to Contracted Par- 

i > r ) f *> i ~ 

ticiples Active ; as, (J>^j^ " a seller of roses " ; j-j ^ I 

1? 1 Is O<> f 

" a cooker of broth "; j^ (J ^ " a shoemaker "; j^.jsK 
" a cap-maker" or " a hatter" ; jL,^- " a saddler"; &c. &c. 

143. These Contracted Participles are sometimes cor- 

n o 

rupted ; for instance : ^b, a corruption of ^U, contracted 

x ?' 
from aJoJlo " a remainer with," or " waiter upon," is added 

to many Nouns ; as, ^Lwb " a gardener "; ^b.o " a porter "; 

00" 3f 

Jld<bj "a jailor." In the same manner is ^ " both," cor- 

o 

rupted and contracted from ft ; which itself is here a part, 
or contraction (as it were), of the Compound Participle 

*)* Ox *"3 

Active ss^&ft " a worker," and is thus added to Nouns ; 

TJ-V o^o 

as, Jj) " a goldsmith"; Jj&\ " an iron," or " blacksmith"; 
y*j} " a potter"; &c. &c. 

NOUNS OF PLACE. 

144. The Persians have also adopted this Noun from the 

O Is 

Arabic; as, Jcs"** "a mosque" or "place of worship"; 

O O " OxO ^ 

(j^jlc " a station," or " place of descent "; y** " a ford 
over a river," &c. : but still the genuine Persian form is 



* See p. 21. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



109 



frequently used ; which is, to add ^ , meaning both time 

o 

and place, to the Noun ; as, xUolyi- " a bed " or " place of 

O Q s f 1 O ^ 

sleep"; *!jji "a resting-place "; slices: "a throne- 
chamber," and sometimes the " capital of the empire," for 

o o 

the throne rests there ; sUUU. " the evening," or " the 

^ o 

night-time"; xlCu " untimely," or " out of time"; &c. &c. 

o o is , Q o o 

145. In like manner, J3*,,jlj, *<* , ^b, ;L, ^J, added 
to Nouns, all denote the places of any thing of which the 
Nouns bear the name ; as, 

o o _. 

^u u A rose-garden. 
^ A. thorny place. 



or 



} A sa i t .desert, or 
-. I a salt-mine. 

j 



^~> An idol-temple. 
A fire-temple. 



A penholder, or 
inkstand. 



c 



A candlestick. 

x A mountainous 
country. 

A rough stony 
place. 






} O O 

' ^ .O ^ pl ace haunted by 
'C. - y " evil spirits. 



&c. &c. 



146. Adjectives implying possession, plenty, mixture, or 
colour, are formed by prefixing the Nouns to the Particles 



OO oo 



- Sorrowful. 



o o _~ o - 



Bashful. 

Hopeful. 

-\ 

* Learned. 

k Wise. 



Poisonous. 



Fearful. 
Ashamed. 

't Emerald-coloured. 
Black-coloured. 
Rose-coloured. 



&c. &c. &c. 



110 (! I .) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

147. Adjectives denoting similitude, or fitness, are formed 

_ *>x }'_ "3 1 

by placing the Nouns before L , LI, ^ , *J I , ^L , ^ 
&c. &c. ; as, 



Like magic. 



U- 1 -XA Like ambergris. 



Resembling the 



moon. 



' Manly; and a/so, 
-' Fit for men. 



&3\J Fit for women. 






o o o o o 



O v 



Demon-like. 



Resembling the 



sun. 



Prince- like, or 
Fit for kings. 



148. Some Adjectives, when intended to express fulness, 
entireness, completeness, or variety, are repeated, having the 
letter (I) Alef interposed between them ; as t-JW " brimfur'; 

^s ^ OOF 'T^ 

j^l^ " entirely/' or " from one end to the other"; ^^ 
" of various colours "; &c. But the instances of these two 
or three classes of Adjectives are very few, almost confined, 
indeed, to those above stated. 

149. From the Compounds above mentioned, or any 
other Adjectives Compound or Simple, Abstract Substan- 
tives may be formed, by adding the Particle ^ ; subject to 
the same conditions as already stated, when speaking of 
Definite and Indefinite Nouns*. 

150. Another class of these Abstracts is formed by placing 
the Third Person Singular of the Simple Preterite of a Verb 
before the Imperative of the same Verb ; or before the 
Third Person Singular of the Simple Preterite of the same, 
or of another Verb. 



See the Rules on Definite and Indefinite Nouns, p. 32. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ' 1 1 1 

The Conjunction j is sometimes placed between them ; 
which is, however, never fully pronounced, but only serves 
as a ( ' ) Peesh on the last letter of the preceding word ; 

o 9 ? o f r>? P i ? *)? ? ^ 9 

as, ,_s)^*s or jLjJil "conversation"; ysiw*. "search"; 

>)>?>), T ?0<> x _ 

or ^yjj^s- " buying and selling ;" yi*\ or 
" coming and going," or "frequenting"; &c. &c. 



Vf 



151. Others are made, again, by adding j\ to the Third 

Person Singular of the Simple Preterite of a Verb ; as, 

if > ->, 

J2s " speech"; j&j "motion" or "behaviour"; &c. &c. 



OF PREPOSITIONS. 

152. Prepositions serve to connect words one with an- 
other, and to shew the relation between them. They are, 
for the most part, set before Nouns and Pronouns ; as, 

O T^O *V Ox O x , 

oj^lw sjf.j\ ^AJ " My father went from home to the market." 

QxO? '> TOx 

" I gave this book to him. 



153. Prepositions are of great use in all languages ; but 
in one particular they are of greater use in Persian than in 
any other language not similarly constituted ; inasmuch as, 
in Persian, they express all those relations which, in some 
languages, are chiefly marked by Cases, or the different 
endings of Nouns. 

154. Prepositions are Separable or Inseparable. The Se- 
parable Prepositions are those which may be used separated 



112 (HT) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

from other words; as, Jib "upon," or "atop," "aloft"; 
^ "down"; j]/',J5j "above"; Jj "below," or "beneath"; 
dj/ " down"; ^ " before," or " in front"; 
" after," or "behind"; ^"towards," "side of"; 
Jjf. " between " ; ^ " by the side " ; oji , *iL$ " near " ; 
^jj, "vicinity," "neighbourhood"; ^J, ^ "for," 

OOf O J> x 0_ 

" on account of "; ^.^ "out"; ^jJl " in." To which 
may be added these four, borrowed from the Arabs ; 
jli "before"; 1^ "after"; J^. "toward"; CjU- "side." 

' 



155. The Inseparable Prepositions are those which can- 

o* 

not be used separately; as, jl, j "from," "by," "of"; 

j, jjl "on," "upon"; Ij, ^ "to"; b "with"; jo "in"; 

]; "for," "to," "of." Some of these are often used 

two together, so as to form Compound Prepositions ; as, 

V O^'V 0x0, 

Jlbjl, j>jj} "from above," or "from top"; j\j>j\ "from the 
height"; ^1%! , Jjyl, u-J$ " from below," "from beneath," 

O^Ox' Q^T^ O^ 

"from under"; (j^jl ' from behind"; j'^/^, or 

"then," or "afterwards"; Jsojji " from before"; 
"from"; ^LuJ! " from the middle," "from the midst," 

O?O yOx T 00-*^ 

"from amongst"; ^J\ "from the side"; ^J^l "from 
near"; uL->,X J^l, vl^Jl "from"; ^jl, jjl "for," 

O O ^ OOx 

"because of," "on account of"; ^j+tj 1 "from without": 
^JA^l "from within"; jljli "before"; JllL' " after." 

Ox 

Taking jl away, __> (to), may be prefixed to all the fore- 

o^ ^oo x oo^ oo^ 

going Prepositions, except (j~-y*., ,_j^, ,-^j, JA* and J*j. 

00 

jJo is very often used to signify "out-and-out," "clear-out," 
"quite out." j is no more than jl contracted, and therefore 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



may be used instead of it, but must always be prefixed to 
the Preposition : the use of it is, however, chiefly, if not 
wholly, confined to poetry. 



OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

156. There are, in Persian, Simple as well as Compound 
Conjunctions. The following are the Simple Conjunc- 
tions: 7 "and"; ^,> "also/' "likewise"; J\ or 

J "if"; L, "or," "either"; >- "except"; "unless," 

"rather"- If <L- "for," "because," or "whether." 

' , ' - 

157. Compound Conjunctions are of various sorts. One 

T sss Iss 

sort is composed of two Conjunctions ; as, _^lj or_f^ " and if"; 

' ," T ' 

Lj "and or"; Ulj, ^ij which latter is also abbreviated, 
thus viLij, J } "and but," "nevertheless"; kb "but 
rather," or " perhaps " ; **.J\ , i^j> , *?J\ 3 , *$ " although/' 
"and although," &c. Another sort is compounded of a 



This Conjunction is borrowed from the Arabs, and is pronounced 
j va ; but it is not always distinctly articulated in Persian. Very often, 
when coming between two words, especially when such words have a natural 
affinity or any other relation one to another, the j is used as a vowel ; and 

it serves only as \j~-Q ('), or the vowel u in English, as if placed on the 

>, ' , 
last letter of the first of the two words; as^iiU^Jj " the father and mother"; 

o , ~>9 OO^ o^ 

^.^jtjjj "day and night"; <3juij+J> " warm and cold," &c. ; which are not 
usually pronounced "Pedar va mandar," " Rooz va shab," " Garm va 
sard"; but, " Pedaru mandar," " Roozu shab," " Garmu sard," &c. &c. The 

w Is O 

following Conjunctions are also borrowed from the Arabs : L! , (Jj , ,.XjJ 
~,, <*J ~ 

"but"; Jj" rather." 

Q 



114 (III ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

3 ' Ox 

Conjunction and a Preposition; as, js?, "excepting"; *$j, 
^, "together"; &c. &c. 

158. Other Compound Conjunctions are formed by the 
union of Adjectives, Prepositions, Adverbs, Pronouns, 

^O^O^ O T x ,, x 

and Conjunctions; as, J^i^/fcj iXxs-ybj, 
"although," "notwithstanding,"^.; Jjjju, 

T ^ OO>- O^OO 0^x0 Ox 

-uil;! , jj-Ly , t r ^A u il;l " because," " therefore," &c. 



o x Ox O O x Ox 



159. A Preposition alone is sometimes used as a Con- 

Ox O 

junction; as, u ^ "then"; j. "without": and sometimes 
a Noun also; as, x\f>- "whether"; &c. &c. 

160. Conjunctions and Prepositions being equally essential 
to discourse, since they form that class of words called 
Connectives, without which there could be no language ; 
some further remarks, joined with a few examples on the 
nature and the use of Conjunctions, may not be unaccepta- 
ble to the learner. 

161. Conjunctions are principally divided into two sorts, 
the Copulative and Disjunctive. 

The Conjunction-Copulative serves to connect or to con- 
tinue words or sentences, by expressing an addition, a sup- 
position, a cause, &c. ; as, 

He and his brother reside 
in London. 

I will go, if he would give 
me permission. 

A-. jJOs* &^9 1 ->-, ^3 J ^ J did n0t %' becaUSe I WaS 
J - J^J r *J t-' afraid. 



&c. &c. &c. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



O'O 



162. The Conjunction-Disjunctive serves also to connect 
or to continue words or sentences : but instead of connecting 
their meanings, as the Conjunctives do, they disjoin them, or 
set them, as it were, in opposition ; as, 

/ f , 

Gave me a cup of tea, 

.,, , . J 
without milk. 

TT 1 1 T-J 

He asked every body, ez- 
me. 



-.. i.i 

My servant went, but he 

.tJifc. ' 

I, , did not return. 



163. These two kinds of Conjunctions may further be sub- 
divided in the following manner. 

Conjunctions that unite both sentences and their mean- 
ings : they are either Copulatives or Continuatives. 

The former may join all sentences, however incongruous 
in signification ; as, 



, o o o 



Sady was a fine Poet, and India is very hot. 

The latter join those sentences only which have a natural 
connection ; as, 



No verdure is found in the fields, because there has been (come) no rain. 



Listen to the advice of thy father, for he is thy well-wisher. 

164. Continuatives are also of two sorts, Suppositive and 
Positive. 

The former denote connexion, but not actual existence ; as, 



>\ls\ 

The Sun will scorch thee, i^thou goest abroad. 



116 (111) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The latter imply connexion and actual existence at the 
same time ; as, 



Thou art a God-fearing man, since thou lovest thy parents. 

165. Again, Positive Continuatives are either Causal or 
Collective. The former subjoin causes to effects ; as, 

' '-i I .r i V \ i " He fell from the tree because the 

i^jbo ^b &^U> *^Ui1 ^^j^\ branch could not bear (him) 
The latter subjoin effects to causes ; as, 

' ' He is a fool, ttere/ore, he does 

not understand / 



&c. &c. &c. 

166. Disjunctive Conjunctions, which unite sentences, 
while they disjoin their meanings, are either Simple, which 

Ox O O x Ox O __ 

merely disjoin; as, j>\>_ e^vJ i^^Jb^l 'That is either a 
horse or an ass"; or Adversative, which both disjoin and 

OOxX OxOO O OxO__ 

mark an opposition; as, e>j/- ^ c^-JJ v-^^l^l 'That 
is not a horse, but it is an ass"; &c. &c. 

167. Adversative Disjunctives are divided into Absolute and 

O ^x^ixOx^O OOX 

Comparative: Absolute, as when I say, ui^ ji'Ul ^^^M ^ 
" I was awake, but thou wast not." Comparative, as in this 

O O x_ Ox O x O O x O 

example : ci^wJIjI/Jl^ c-^J ^1 " This horse is swifter Mew 
that"; &c. &c. 

168. Adversative Disjunctives are further divided into 
Adequate and Inadequate : Adequate, as when it is said, 

Ox O OOxxOx^Ox ? 

^(ijliMjLi J^T jsftlji. j! " He will come, M^/ess he be sick"; 
that is, his sickness only will be an adequate cause to 
prevent his coming. Inadequate, as in this sentence, 

0x0 O Oxx 00^ O x x "> 0?x It 

<!(> ^^Cvo &-j} ^ i\ft!jflC J^jj' jl ' He will not accept (it), 
although he be poor ; " that is, his poverty will not be a 
sufficient or adequate cause to make him accept it ; &c. &c. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. O'v) H7 



OF INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS. 

169. Interjections are words thrown in between the parts 
of a sentence to express the passions or emotions of a 
speaker. They may, however, be termed Exclamations when 
they occur at the beginning of a sentence; that is, when 
the speaker begins his speech by uttering one of these 

Is , 1 s" Z? TO? 0^0 r>, 

words first; as, ^l^e^^uyy^^^'^U.AjtiJ.xijI "From 
extreme illness, a/as / that I have not the power of moving." 

i ^ O s O? O s OO-PO^ 

or, iti&^UjpjC/forf^jwywjl "J/as/ that death gave him 
no quarter ! " &c. &c. 

170. The Persians have borrowed most of their Interjec- 
tions from Arabic ; in which latter language they are pretty 
numerous. They are not, however, a set of words without 
definite meanings in themselves ; as, "oh!" "ah!" "hem!" 
"ho!" &c. : but, on the contrary, they are all of them 
significant words, and some even short sentences, used as 
Interjections ; because their very meanings express the pas- 
sions or emotions which the speaker intends to express. 
Nor are their uses always confined to these modes of expres- 
sion ; but are otherwise employed as Adjectives, as Sub- 
stantives, as Verbs Simple or Compound, just as they 
happen to be. Similar instances are numerous, even in 
English. What are, for instance, "O misery!" "Death!" 
" Shame ! " &c. but significant words, used as Interjections, 
as well as otherwise 1 

171. The following is a list of the principal Interjections 
used in Persian ; which are, with the exception of those 
marked p., all Arabic : 



(I I A) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



172. Interjections expressing regret or sorrow are, 

" P. ts p - " Alas ! " t -S*- " Pit y ! " * T p - " a 



173. Those which intimate grief, distress, or want of 
help, are, JJ , Jxlo " O quarter \" i^ P. " Cry \" S\SM p. 
" Injustice \" " Tyranny ! " CJb " O Lord ! " 

174. Such as are expressive of admiration, both real and 

O O_ 

ironical, are ^ I P. " create ! " (that is, O Lord, let us have 
more !) U=^ * Welcome ! " &\ C^> , alii kJJUJ " God is 
mighty ! " jSil 'LtU " God has willed ! " t\ 3 1\ 3 , &>*>,*) , 
" Heigh-ho ! " or " Bravo ! " &c. &c. 



175. Of aversion, or disgust : 1 jlx, p. " May it never be 
or come to pass!" aJJUJUc, il!UJyo "God protect us!" 
" God forgive me ! " &c. &c. 



J )s 

176. Of lamentation, mourning, &c. : ^Us p. Jj>i) p. 
" Lament ! " " Oh ! " " Alas ! " Jj , fy " O misery ! " 
' O loss I" "O pity ! " &c. &c. 



177. Of hatred and contempt : uJl " Fie ! " &c. &c. 



178. Of a call of the attention: tiJJu>! p. Ja>p. ^ 

" Lo ! " Behold ! " " Hark ! " to all of which J\ " O ! " 
also may be prefixed. 

179. We may now give a few examples of the introduc- 
tion of the above into sentences. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. '*0 H9 

To-morrow, please God ! I will 



&X) i i\j\*o\*j.>5 \fCi L_W*I How well, as God willed yester- 
o .9 / day, did your horse run ? 



> Z - x x x 

A<O OtXl-J &J />*9M51 ^^y J^V ^ v brother, I regret, is very 

seriously ill. 



- 

3\J \ &^=>V4_xJ\J .4^ &-*A f.\ \\ &\ Alas ! for all those kindnesses 



which he exercised towards 
A' thee ! 



_Jt. >^O .Xs* /.y\ ^^ ^ B' ess thee! thou hast written 

t , ' this page very well. 



Fie ! how much useless trouble 
thou gi vest! 



O misery ! the people of this 
city all died of hunger ! 



&c. &c. &c. 



OF ADVERBS. 

180. Adverbs being parts of speech which express some 
quality or circumstance respecting what are called Verbs, 
are, in Persian, chiefly Nouns, Participles, and Prepositions ; 
or are derived from, or made up of, different combinations of 
these parts of speech, with or without Particles, in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

(1) Of Number : as, ^b, or ]\Z " once"; jly " twice "; 
thrice"; &c. &c. 



120 (IN) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(2) Of Order : as, IjILi , ^' , *r- $> or u^? > " first "'> 



O O ? 9 OPf ^ ? ? 9 OO .? 

" 



.^ejJ, f)<*, or LJlj , " secondly "; .,JA- , ^ , j-^v* , **>/ 

or IxJtf, "thirdly"; ^.^L^. , ^U^-, <H4r (V L *^' or 
"fourthly"; &c. &c. 

(3) Of Place: as, Isru! "here"; y-ij', s***^i' u - iAvJ, 
&c. "this way," "this direction," &c. ; lacT, ^JT, &c., 
" there," " that way"; &c. &c. 

(4) Of Interrogation: as, / "Where?" L?, U-^ 
-i>Jl^, &c., "What place?" "What way?" "What 
direction?" &c. JJU- "How many?" jy^ "In what 
manner?" ^ " How ?" ^"Wherefore?" L-^, 
^Jl, *^4"*?, &c., "Why?" "On what account?" 

" For what cause ? " Jli L. " How much ?" " What quan- 
tity?" &c. &c. 

(5) Of Time Present: as, ^\ , ^, SU., "now"; 



' '> 

" 



^Ui^l, ^U; ( .jMa>, w y^l^, &c., "just now," "this 
instant," " this very moment "; j^ " to day " ; ^^,\ 
"tonight"; JLJ "this year"; &c. &c. 

(6) Of Time Past : as, Jjj\J*, ^ & , "before this"; 

OOOx- OOOxO OOOOx 

^'y^i' "previously": ^^ , ^ "anciently"; 

Ox- '" O O T 

yesterday"; i-^ijj "last night"; ^L JL,U "last 
year." 

O^ OTO^--?^OO 

(7) Of Time to Come : as, \<^ " to-morrow "; Jjtyj ,jyjj>& 
" the next day "; t_^il jj " to-morrow night"; ^ ^z 

Ox *?x 

"the next night"; li> ,/* "the day after to-morrow"; 
i - ~>s i, 1,1 

L-^iljy^^j "the night after to-morrow"; ^JtjjjU "the 






PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( I f I ) 121 



next year"; Ji^> U> "the next month "; o^iis "the 

O s^*^ fs^s ^ ' <_ 

next week"; or xjoiT <UftA , sJoil *U, s^'T JL "the coming 

o o x Ox o ,, 

or approaching week, month,, and year." ^1 A*J, ,,-ju., 
uLiT, J$l,jlj "henceforth/' "in future," "hereafter/' &c. ; 

> 1 ,1 , O ? O x ->,->), 

i]^ " by-and-bye," '' presently, &c. : jjfto..f, 
" immediately," " instantly," "directly," &c. 



no o 

&. " 



(8) Of Time Indefinite: as, I^^J^yUl^/^UwJ "often, 

O 

" many a time/' ' f oftentimes " ; ^btfx^ " occasionally " ; 

OOxO OOJ' - T^-O ,, 

i/3yi> "sometimes"; ^ "soon"; ^J.J "very seldom"; 

">~ ~> ' Ox ^^ Tx Ox IxTx 

^oLi " rarely "; xij^Jt>, X;!^ " always," " ever"; <uyu " con- 

^9 O *"V a, x Ox ^ 

stantly"; ^l^o "continually"; jjj^u*^ *^*ji, *-^ "every 
day," "daily"; *JLyb " every year"; lilxJL " yearly"; 

Ox 9x Tx T 1,1,'), 

.utl^ft 'every month"; <KJluU 'monthly"; xJUayb "every 

O 'Ox OxOx 

week"; .X^Ajb "weekly"; ^ "every moment"; 

OxOy Oo^OOOx- 

momentarily"; p tt .Jap.*j*J& "again"; &c. &c. 



(9) Of Quantity : as, cJjl " little " ; u^ " much "; 
"rare"; Ju^ "greatly," "a great many"; ^J, 
"abundantly"; ^"sufficiently"; ^ "enough," "only"; 

00 , 

"even," "even this only." 



(10) OF MANNER OR QUALITY. 
181. Adverbs of Quality are the most numerous : 

o , _ 

they are generally formed by adding the termination t->\ 
(which answers to the English " ly " ) to an Adjective, 

O -- o 

whether Simple or Compound; as, *J1^> "bold-(/"; 

R 



122 (Iff) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

<sJLjli> " learned-/^"; &c. Every Compound Epithet, 
therefore, with very few exceptions, can be thus used as 
an Adverb*. 

182. Participles Present are also used as Adverbs : they 
may be Simple ; as, 



O T *, O 



ji He spoke to me lamentingly. 

O r f O s T s 1 ^ s T 



He asked me smilingly, 
or Compound ; as, 

> , > it jj e came con tenuously, or in a manner evidently 

C> ~J^ L^" Jv seeking contention, i.e. to pick a quarrel. 



"'. ' ft f , . s '=^ He went weeping to the gate of 
CUSj 2SUj (Jp\j~ij5j> ^Ui tej> the pa i ace O f t h e king. 

183. Compound Past Participles are likewise employed as 
Adverbs ; as, 

r%b SOuSdii He returned broken-hearted. 

In fact, every Noun which describes a Quality, Manner, or 
Attribute, may be employed in Persian as an Adverb. 

(11) Of Doubt ; as, I*lft " perhaps "; lib " it may be" or 

">, s if 

"may happen"; jJly "possibly"; <tfy "peradventure"; &c. 



s 

(12) Of Affirmation; as, GUa>, <uolyt, "certainly"; <LxxJI 
verily"; i^J, viliJ, tiliS*, *-^A^, " undoubtedly"; 

' ?i t. 

.i "without any doubt whatever"; A-L^IH^ with- 



out artifice." 



.See the List of the Compounds, Adjectives and Epithets, p. 103, 4. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



^O 123 



(13) Of Negation; as, " never "; & "no," "not"; 

- 1 9 s, OO TO/- 

ISiko, bol, "not at all"; gft "not any"; e^j^s> "at no 

OQOO OOx-O 

time"; jj^^jt "nothing whatever"; ^ysu^j "in no 

O ^ O O x O 

wise " ; . I ^ #p " none whatever " ; ( j f j AS> " no person " ; 

o o^ 

b "on no account;" &c. &c. 



(14) Of Comparison ; as, t^Jb;, y^, ^\ , ^, "more"; 
jj**i " much-more"; J^jJ, t^J&.Jfi, " most"; 
Jif , " less"; J^j " least"; o> , \kfj, " small"; 
JjkijL/, "smaller"; JA," alike"; Jp,Ll "equal"; 

^9^)9 O .c O ^ 

"parallel"; j^, J^l-c, ^JW*, "opposite," "face to face"; 

O P TOxOx 

t^j'r ' tti;j(**> "of the same weight." 



184. Prepositions, or even Adjectives, singly, in some in- 
stances, become Adverbs, by their application merely, without 
suffering any change ; as in these phrases : 



\ fAj>AL. cAi (^ e time of) our departure is 
^ near (at hand). 



;, dost thou complain of 
me? 
&c. &c. &c. 



185. The following sentence will better explain the man- 
ner in which Adverbs are used in Persian : 



I went to see him once. 



186. When the Adverb " once " is employed in English, 
it may mean indefinitely ; namely, " once upon a time." 



(I ft ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



In Persian, in such instances, the Indefinite Particle ^ is 
added to the Adjective jb ; as, 



S^)V Once upon a <ime, he went to see him. 

It may be used without any emphasis being intended ; as, 
" Once I went to see him." Either of the two foregoing 
phrases, in Persian, may be employed here ; when the con- 
text will do the rest. 

187. It may, in English, mean " one time only," i.e. 
neither "more nor less." Now, in Persian, the Adjective- 

o " 

Adverb ^ " sufficient/' or " only," must also be used with 
the other Adverbs in manner following : 



Ox OJ 



cJ* I went to see him, only once. 

J - p 

J* iO (.* v Cl^C- w^ ) He was on^y too Aour* with me. 

O Ox O O Ox x' 

j 'tX->^- ^j^*^' j' (_5*^ ^ ne ^ ^ em was smiling only. 



188. Sometimes the Adverb II ^A, the Adjective (& 

Tx 

" alone," or the Adjective- Ad verb ^M " singly," are used 

Ox 

with ^p*), or employed instead of it ; as, 

/Ij. OOw- j t^*^ ,USo Jo^A H e asked me only once, and 
J ' > 



no more. 



i l^JJ ^ L c omplain of thee alone, and 



cXJOO J .j L/* j^ -^ l --!?*^ **' J ^ ou a 8 ^ 6 ^ f me alone. 

They alone were speaking, and 
no one else. 

x 

^^ Listen to me now! 



OxO O 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. O r &) 125 



did not ^7 thi s horse, for 
several reasons. 



O ^ TOO CX 

l--:A .jo &Xu\ ^ ,\ Firsf, that it is old. 
J=v - } 



or ,*j3 Secondly, that it is lame. 



^~-j or \jJ\J - i "-"v/> that it is of a bad 
f 7 ^ , colour. 

&c. &c. &c. 



5\s *A^ Where hadst thou gone yes- 
ferdoy? 

Why dost thou ask ? 

Because I knocked at the door 
toice, and no one gave me 
an answer. 

19 Q ^ 

time was it ? 



J d>>^ &Sk 



' 



J do not e*c% recollect (it is 
not exactly in my recollec- 
tion) : it might have been 



189. The learner will observe, that the Adjective e 
"perfect" has here been employed as the Adverb " exactly/' 
without having suffered any change of form : so he may 

Q O? 

also remark with regard to the Adjective i . >j- " good," or 
" well," in the following sentence : 



Think M)eW/ i4; mav 

come into thy recollection. 



recollect ( r it is 
come into my recollection) ; 

. it was an hour after noon 

(one o'clock). 



126 (Id) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



j^ Whence came it into thy re- 
collection ? 

- 

O c-^lc^ id IJIMV^JXB j i From (seeing) the common 

labourers, who mostly go to 
(their) meals at one o'clock. 



What has this to do (what con- 
nection has this) with your 
knocking at the door yes- 
terday. 

** ^r^- Why, because just as I was re- 

ox o^oxo ox Ox x, x f turning, disappointedly, from 

^U \^ r >\j > \ (_y*-*^- +*~^!*jl H& the door of your house, I 

oxo o x saw a number of them in 

rOtO &^.S the street. 

vV 

i^>\ This can never be considered 
(become) a proof that you 

^ t^Jo i^g.L-i came to the door of my house 

? at one o'clock. 

x x O , 

Why not ? 



O Ox 



'..jit &JL.x~tjb sA^" &i e \x-i /.jJi j> For this reason, that the work- 
men do not always, and every 
a to (their) meals ex- 
at one o'clock. 



- ,\-x J^^tj &. For I have o/ten seen them 
eating their food at two 



> to see 

^XOX o oo*xo a number of workmen in 

JyJ\ &S s"- 1 --_-'* A-Xj^iOJi ^jOOi the street, is by no means a 

x o ? o o proof that, positively, they are 

to eat 



It is enough, now: you are a 
wry jrood [ironically used] 
logician. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. rv ) 127 



\ "\ But tel1 me (speak), Really, 

, U wilt thou be v at p 

, row, or not? 
ItX^. God onfy knows. 



ifA -* ,1 JB \\ jviJsJ u 




Unless thou shouldst say 
thou wilt come, and dost 
come accordingly. 

I promise that I will come, 
without fail, an hour before 
noon - 



? Very well : if thou canst, come 
earlier even : there is no 
objection (lit. harm). 



OF DIMINUTIVE NOUNS. 

190. This class of Nouns has a very extensive and pecu- 
liar application. With a complete knowledge of the pro- 
perties of a Persian Noun, and of the changes which it 
undergoes by grammatical inflection, the mode of imparting 
to them a diminutive signification would appear to be 
simple and obvious, and scarcely of sufficient importance to 
require separate illustration ; especially when we consider 
the vast power of expression, and the unlimited variety of 
epithets existing in the Numbers of the Persian Adjectives, 
and their susceptibility of almost infinite combinations with 
other Parts of Speech. 

The fact, however, is, that, in the Persian Language, 
these Nouns constitute quite a separate class, and their 
forms are of a very perplexing nature ; contrary to that 
general uniformity and simplicity which characterizes the 



128 (ITA) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

grammar of this Language. One cause of this peculiarity, 

o ^ o x o 

perhaps, is, that the Affixes (four in number, cJ, &$,&-, *) 
which being added to a Noun at one time express 
simply smallness of size, at other times impart to it other 
meanings ; such as, tenderness, pity, contempt, artificial things 
in imitation of nature, nicknames, &c. &c. 

Hence these Particles are not exclusively appropriated to 
one particular purpose, but vary their office when added to 
different classes of Nouns ; and a foreigner may experience 
some difficulty in duly comprehending the use and applica- 
tion of these Affixes. 

The difficulty, however, will in general be experienced 
by the Student only in writing Persian ; for in reading any 
respectable Persian book, he will always find the context so 
clear, that, if he understands what he reads at all, he will 
readily comprehend what a Noun, having any of these 
Affixes, is intended to express : but in writing, if he cannot 
trust to his knowledge of the idiom, he need not make use 
of them to express any of the different meanings above 
mentioned. Some Adjectives, Adverbs, Epithets, &c., may 
equally be, and are, by the Persians, universally employed 
for that purpose, as already stated. 

191. I will now proceed to explain, as clearly as I can, 
how Diminutive Nouns of various kinds are formed in Per- 
sian, by the aid of the four Particles above specified. 



PERSIAN GBAMMAB. (">) 129 



192. OF THE DIMINUTIVE PARTICLES, 

WHEN ADDED TO 

THE NAMES OF RATIONAL BEINGS. 



(1) The Particle t^J, when added to the names of Rational 

> sis 
Beings, may simply denote Diminutiveness ; as, cJj^o " a 

O Xx T x X 

small man"; ^Jjj "a small woman"; ^j^> "a small 

O x O ? 

boy"; cJ/s-J "a small girl." In this sense, however, 
unless jestingly, it is seldom used. 

(2) When added to a Noun of this class, and not intended 
simply to express Diminutiveness, an Adjective must be 
added, to define the meaning, which, in this case, however, 

O xOx 

is not always of a favourable nature ; as, U,U cJo^ " a good 

O O x xOx 

holy man"; j>jk <^>/<> "a wicked man"; &c. &c. 

(3) It may be used in an endearing sense, to imply Pity, 

Tx 1 1 x xO 

Affection, Regret, &c.; as, o^Uoj ^ CJlak " My poor dear 
child is sick"; &c. &c. 

o 

(4) With the letter * added to the cJ, so as to make it 

o *- 

s$ , it may imply "contempt," with or without an Adjective; 
as, t&^' " O thou/e//o; / " &j J\ " Why, this woman"; 
&c. &c. But this is restricted to Grown-up persons ; for in 
the case of a Boy or a Girl, the y alone (also, with or without 
an Adjective) is quite sufficient to imply the contemptuous 

Oxx O x O 7 

sense; as, ,*.> "a naughty boy"; x/i-j "a good-for- 

OxTx jx x 

nothing girl": or, ijjujm "a profligate boy or youth"; 

x O JxxO f 

a shameless girl"; &c. &c. 



x 

193. The Particle to- is never added to the names of 
Rational Beings. 



130 (if.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



194. OF DIMINUTIVE PARTICLES, 

WHEN ADDED TO 

THE NAMES OF IRRATIONAL BEINGS. 



'i S ' f >ss 

In Persian, we may say tLUJ, cJ^-, &c., signifying "a 
small horse," " a swa// ass," &c. &c. ; and the Adjectives 

i ? i r 

cX-j or iJ,i- "little" or "small" may at the same time 

be used; as, fciU/tiUJ "a little horse"; >>-C^ "a 
small ass"; &c. c. 

195. It may also be added to this class of Nouns, to 

imply pity or compassion, &c. ; but in this meaning it is 

i i " 
generally accompanied with an Adjective ; as, (iJ >f*M> C^- 

' ' ' ^ 
" </<e poor wretched ass"; *Ju-tiJ 5 l5 "the poor tired ox"; 

&c. In both these senses, however, it is more usual to add 

i 
the Particle cJ, icith or without an Adjective, to the Generic 

T r> , ~>, f ) 

Noun, jj^s- or ^y U- " Animal," for Beasts of all kinds ; and 

1 19 ~l s 1 s 

to f^> " Bird," for Fowls of all descriptions ; as, CJJ!^ "poor 

1 s^ 9 

little creature," or merely " little creature " ; ^J^ " poor 

O ^ O x x Ox 

little bird"; &c.; or ^_w- CJJl^io- "the poor jaded beast"; 

T O x xxO 

ijjui iJ;yl- "the weak miserable animal"; &c. &c. 

5 Ox 

196. It is at the same time to be observed, that ^^ is 
chiefly to be used for Domestic Animals, Quadrupeds, and 

0x0 

Fish ; while ^yl- applies to Wild Beasts, Reptiles, and Vermin 
of all kinds. 

Ox Ox O 

197. The Particles <6 , <**-, and x, are never added to this 
class of Nouns. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( ' H ) 131 

198. OF DIMINUTIVE PARTICLES, 

ADDED TO 

INANIMATE THINGS. 

O Ox 

The Particles cJ and <te- are most extensively used, in 
Persian, with this class of Nouns : 

O xOx 

(1) To indicate Smallness of Size ; as, CXc^ " a little 

" ? 
pond"; <W=b "a small garden." But in this sense the affix 

Ox 

&- is mostly employed. 

(2) To imply things made in imitation of nature, or other 
works of art : and under these heads are to be included 
toys, and all those things which are made for pastime, 
resembling, or having a connexion with any thing really 
useful or important. 

o 

199. The Particle cJ is, however, most commonly em- 

' * ~ 
ployed in senses such as these ; L e. eXJ I " a little image " 

O x_ Oxx t 

(from *4> I "a man ") ; ^Ltijyc " a little insignificant pic- 
ture/' scratched, as it were, upon a piece of paper, or 

00 Ox 

daubed upon a wall ; (j>ya being the proper word for a 
regular " picture," and both derived from the primitive 

OxOC 

Arabic Substantive 'i jy c " a form " or " a likeness.") In 

O^x- 

like manner, cJJiU" means a "kite" ('a fictitious bird/ as 

o ^ 

Dr. Johnson terms it, 'made of paper'); *& being the 
Persian for "paper"; &c. &c. 



(3) The Particle cJ is again added to the Noun, when 
the intention is to express the application of it to the per- 

5 x O x 

formance of an action out of its ordinary use ; as, cX**io- 

O xO x 

' a significant wink of the eye"; cJJJ clapping the 



132 (Iff) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



hands for mirth or applause ; cXiy listening, by stealth, to 

O ^ O 7 

what is going on ; tiLLJo making a somerset, so as to 

OOx TO p TO? 

fall upon the back ; &c. &c. (c^>, ^/, and o^, mean- 
ing the hand, the ear, and the back, respectively). 

200. Many additional instances of the use of these (so- 
called) Diminutive Particles, with still more numerous modi- 
fications of their meanings, might be cited ; but it will pro- 
bably be thought that quite sufficient attention has already 
been bestowed upon this comparatively unimportant part of 
the Grammar. The reason of my having dwelt upon it at 
so much length, is, that the Persian Language, being con- 
stitutionally poetical, is usually very figurative ; and, not- 
withstanding its simplicity and regularity of its general 
construction, it still abounds in pithy and concisely subtle 
expressions, chiefly perhaps arising out of these little things. 
Now, unless a foreigner for whom, after all, Grammars are 
written obtains a competent knowledge of phrases and 
idioms of this nature (I speak from experience), he can 
never master any language. He may indeed go on reading 
ever so much, but he will never satisfy himself; or write 
ever so many books, but he will never satisfy others. 

201. The following dialogue between two friends may, 
after all, perhaps give the best idea of the mode in which 
these Diminutive Particles are employed in Persian : 

T O.OXxOx "> -- 

Who is that fellow? d* OO &S 2yo c ,\ 1. 

Of whom dost thou speak ? 

Of that person, who, with 
the small box under his 
arm, is standing yonder. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (""O 133 



Knowest thou not Hasan, 

the goat-dancer ? He is of ^ 

some celebrity in this town. ^ U <^"> a^, 

I had often heard of a !\J. . \ '^ . JOOsLL ',"A 'A-> ,.,**> 1- 
"monkey -dancer"; but a -> '^' \ ~ JJJ- **&*- 

"goat-dancer" must be some- 
new. 



O, don't mention the name 
of the monkey ! for it is a 
disgusting creature. 

Do not say so ; for it is a 
wonderful little mimic. 

The extent of which is, 
that it grins, or winks, or 
makes a somerset. 

Perhaps this wonderful 
goat of yours, then, performs 
some magic ? 

There is no magic in the 
case ; but this little animal 
exhibits several tricks that 
are very surprising. 

Describe one of them: let 
us see. 

For instance : its master 
has several little round pieces 
of wood, all of the same size, 
and each about a span long. 
First, he places one of them 
on the top of that box upon 
the ground : the little goat 
jumps upon it. He then 
puts another on the top of 
that: again the clever goat 
jumps on the top of it : 
and so on, to the number 
of ten or twelve bits of 
wood: and the goat, stand- 
ing on the uppermost of all ; 




134< (in ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



at one time moving its beard, 
and at other times shaking ^ 
its head, in a manner to kill \ 
one with laughing. 




Enough of goats and mon- \jfc -Aj ^o\ . ^ i^jJb ,., ^ 5 V '^ <r-> 1 
keys ! Each, in such sort of 
tricks, is a perfect little devil. L .. /^ M 
Now tell me, How is thy -^"? 
boy to day? Is he any 
better ? 

Poor child! his back is 
very painful : last night he 
could not sleep at all. 

His pedagogue must be 
a strange petty tyrant ! 

He himself is not so bad : 
his wife, too, is a good sort 
of woman : but as to that 
vile assistant of his, he is 
worse than any thing thou 
canst name ! 




Why, this wretched youth fr^-* iXjU &3uJi <^V 
must be insane, to behave 



thus to the children ! OoSo^, AlJ 



He is not quite so insane 

as you imagine, neither. o o _ ,,, ,,-, 

Art thou aware of his cun- 
ningf contrivance, by which 
he frightens the little b irds, 
that they may not go near 
his orchard? 



II 1 J/p Ox.^-0, . O^O^O^x ^^.T x 

have never heard (of . /" I/ \ x w I \ C A 

. v ,,,, , tXXXX* *isk. -! Jit^XX^J .i -J3 

it). What does he do ? J * Y *** 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. C r ) 135 



He has taught the boys *^ 
some of these low vulgar 
songs: and, several times 
daily, he sends them out 
into his orchard, saying, 
" Let one of you sing these 
little verses out loud, while 

the rest join in chorus, and , x ' ' ' ' ' 
clap their hands."' See what (J^> ^ CTUO 6+>y 
low morals this dissolute fel- 
low teaches the poor innocent 
children ; besides hindering 
them from (prosecuting) 
their regular studies ! 

'^J 

Profligate (call him) as 
much as you will ; but this 
clumsy contrivance of his 
can never prove that he 
possesses any cleverness ; 
for one boy, with a bird- 

no rj ,jj, 

from ,. _. 




" wood ), would be sufficient 
for the purpose : and if the f , 
boys, each in his turn, [were ^\ 
to go and] shake the ford- ^', 

, g ,A\ . 

clapper, there would be no ^ ,J 
occasion for any of them to 
neglect his ft/e 600*. 



What you say is true ; jfy^ ^ CL*-J\ C^-jU Ooo^Gw \^i &a\ 2. 
but a wicked wretch, for the "" 

sake of (saving) a cup of y^ "l^ *% JjVtiL,^ 
water, does not care if a -^ ', -^ -^ , 

whole city burns. That > ~> >" -> , >'>' ->*.-), 

clapper he must buy ! Dost <jW ^J^. <*j V'j ^- V^- ti/ ^ 
thou understand me, or 
not? 



136 (tr"!) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 




Very well ; but if the (J>jb LJJ% W^ f' **o' 
boys, at play-time, should 

fly (their) kites in the gar- ^'' " J?-^ 1 t*Jj>K &- 
den, no winged creature ./ tlT 

would dare to fly near that 
place : [thus the object 

would be gained] without , , , ,__ 

any expense on the part of LfA-df.-/ ,-,\ < S us j\ 

that miserly fellow. 

This is also true; but 
[this scheme] also is not 
without danger. 

Whence [arises] the dan- 
ger? 

Perhaps, when they are O>3jcX.x/o_j 
playing and running about, 
they may break some young 
tree, or trample upon some 
little plant : (or what is) 
worse than all, they may 
now and then finger a little 
fig, or handle a small apple, 
and so on : but when they 
are altogether, chipping their 
hands, they cannot attend to 
other little practices. 



According to my notion 
(of justice), the punishment 
of this worthless wretch 
would be, that having tied 
him to a post, in the public 
gardens of the city, there 
they should leave him, in 
order that, at one and the 
same time, the birds may 
be frightened away, and 
other assistant schoolmas- 
ters may take warning. 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (ll~ v ) 137 



OF SYNTAX. 



202. It is usual with Grammarians, on finishing the expla- 
nation of the different Parts of Speech, to treat of what 
they have termed " Syntax/' or that part of Grammar which 
"shews the agreement and right disposition of words in a 
sentence." Syntax, then, according to this definition, is, 
obviously, one of the most important parts of a Grammar ; 
inasmuch as without a correct knowledge of its rules no 
language could be written or spoken correctly. 

But, to illustrate a living language, in which idiom con- 
tributes so essentially to the perfection of a sentence, 
Syntax must embrace, not only "a right disposition of 
words," but also a developement of idiomatic phrases ; and, 
in this point of view, it becomes doubly useful, and indis- 
pensable. 

I 

203. The plan hitherto pursued (I now speak exclusively 
of the writers on Persian Grammar) for teaching this 
important part of the Grammar, has been, to propound 
general rules, and illustrate them by quotations from diffe- 
rent authors. 

Instructive, however, as this plan unquestionably is, I do 
not think (though I speak with great diffidence) that it is 
the best, or, at all events, the easiest mode of teaching a 
foreigner how to speak a language. To quote an isolated 
passage, or a verse, from a poet who may, after all, have 
licentiously strained an expression, to answer some of his 
prosodiacal whims or to cite from an ancient writer, whose 
diction may now be obsolete is not the best method of 

T 



138 (IT/N) PERSIAN GRAMMAB. 

giving a beginner a correct notion of the existing phraseology 
or idiom of a language. 

204. Another, and perhaps still stronger objection to the 
ordinary scheme, is, that, in its manner, it is repulsive, and, 
consequently, seldom studied with requisite attention. The 
beginner, by the time he has arrived at this stage, is pro- 
bably already wearied of a study proverbially dry and un- 
attractive ; and, as his eagerness to begin the grammar of a 
new language may have induced him, at the outset, to reject 
a long preface, his anxiety to get at something more inter- 
esting in it may equally prompt him to disregard what 
he may, however unjustly, consider an unnecessary appen- 
dage ; namely, a long series of minute and complicated rules, 
under the denomination of " Syntax " : thus losing the 
opportunity of making himself acquainted with a most useful 
and instructive portion of his grammar ; namely, how to 
arrange his words in a sentence, so as to express himself 
correctly, and according to idiom. 

With regard to the Persian Language, I am inclined to 
think that a different plan may be successfully adopted. In 
a series of Dialogues, in the shape of conversations on 
general subjects between different individuals, occasion may 
be taken to explain the Rules of Syntax in such a manner 
as to afford the learner an opportunity of making himself 
acquainted with the proper idiom, at the same time that he 
is instructed in the Persian Syntax : and as a literal trans- 
lation of each individual speech, in these conversations, may 
be placed in juxta-position to the original Persian, the 
Student will possess also the advantage of having at once 
before him a multitude of idiomatic phrases and expressions, 
which, with a little judgment, he may arrange in various 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( ' ^ ) 139 

other ways, so as to express different ideas, and convey 
different meanings : and the practice of writing the Persian 
language will also be facilitated by means of these exercises. 

205. I am aware that Dialogues of this description are 
generally dull, and uninteresting ; but this, I fear, is an 
insuperable evil, to which a beginner of any language must 
necessarily submit. In adopting this plan, however, I have 
endeavoured, to the best of my ability, to make these Dia- 
logues as little tiresome as possible, by diversifying them as 
much as is consistent with the principal object of works of 
this kind ; in which, however, more regard must be had to 
instruction than to amusement. 

206. Where any passage, phrase, or word, which may 
appear to me to require explanation, occurs the first time, 
such explanation will be given in a note at the bottom of 
the page ; and the note will afterwards be referred to, 
wherever the same passage, phrase, or word, again occurs in 
the course of these Dialogues. 

207. The English Student must not, nor can he reason- 
ably, expect to find the English idiom and phraseology 
always strictly preserved in the translations of these Dia- 
logues : the object being, to make him acquainted with the 
Persian idiom, by rendering it into English as literally as 
possible, consistently with the preservation of the sense, 
which would often be lost or perverted by too strictly verbal 
a translation. He should, therefore, be satisfied if the English 
translation is sufficiently clear and intelligible, although not 
such as an Englishman would use in expressing the same 
idea in his own language. 



140 ( 1 1 ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

208. It is also proper to observe, that in the course of 
these Dialogues, excepting when absolutely necessary, I shall 
discontinue the use of the Pronouns "Thou" and "Thee," 
&c. &c., when addressing a Second Person Singular ; as they 
sound too stiff and formal, and are never used in common 
conversation in English. Indeed, even in Persian, they are 
seldom used, except between familiar friends, or when a 
superior addresses one much inferior to, or dependent upon, 
himself. 

209. In polite society in Persia, the rule for one person 
addressing another is briefly this : Amongst persons moving 
in the same sphere of life, " You" is used instead of " Thou" 
and " Thee," &c. &c. Between intimate friends, either 
"You" or "Thou"; but the latter is more common. From 
a superior to an inferior, "Thou"; but if the inferior be not 
a dependent, say, a small tradesman, a poor neighbour, &c., 
it shews better breeding in a gentleman, in Persia, to say 
"You"; though he might, with propriety, say 'Thou" 
and " Thee." 

210. Kings are always addressed in the Third Person 
Singular; and "His Majesty" is uniformly applied to them; 
never " Your Majesty." Sovereigns, also, when speaking 
of themselves personally, even say "His Majesty," and 
never "I," or "We"; except in writing, when "We" is 
uniformly used. 

211. Great personages also, unless upon intimate terms, 
address each other in the Third Person Singular ; as, "His 
Lordship," "His Grace," &c. &c. : and so do their depen- 
dants, and persons inferior to them in rank, in addressing, or 
speaking of, them. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 0^1) 141 

212. I do not know how it happens that Persian children 
are taught in schools always to speak of themselves in the 
First Person Plural ; as, " We" " Us," &c. &c. ; unless it be, 
that preceptors suppose "I" and "me" to be expressions of 
too bold and decided a character for a young scholar to use, 
and to savour too much of egotism. 

213. Now, as to the plan of these Dialogues : An English 
gentleman (A.), during his travels in Persia, becomes inti- 
mately acquainted with a gentleman (B.) of that country, 
who, having been in England some time, has acquired a 
tolerable knowledge of the English language. The English 
gentleman speaks Persian fluently ; but not altogether free 
from occasional imperfections, as to the idiom and grammar. 
He has therefore begged his Persian friend to set him right, 
whenever he commits an error of that sort ; promising never 
to be offended, except by " injudicious pedantry in the presence 
of company," when such marks of affection are, certainly, 
not very agreeable. 



DIALOGUE I. 
B. 

OOxx ? 

To-day, the air is very C 
pure and soft : do not you 



->> 
wish we should ride ? 



A. 

> > O ) ^ Ox OOTx 

Why (not) ? I wish (it) 
very much. At what time 
shall we ride ? 



( ' ) See the Compound Verbs, p. 85. 



142 (1^0 PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. 

Whatever time ?/ou think oo 

proper. jo _ 

A. (\) 

Two hours after noon ' 

(two o'clock) ? 



) O 7 O o 



Very good : in the mean X , tX\3 ^ ^^.XJ ^J'jJ c_Jaw jv.x~.j 
while, I will go as far as the 
College, and return. O JLx/ .J. /} j^ 

A 

. ' 7 1, ? s 1 1 9 ' 

I have also two or three U ,-~Jj-XJ .jO tXC-K \J X-3 ,, 
letters to write: I shall ,,.,0 -,' -.,0 ,o T 

write till you come: but ^~ > i &-$O.-x_3 4 W^ . JJO^ Vni 

-^ f : L/_." 
when <//e Worses ore ready, _ ,, 

i "^ ' \ ' \ . M 

do you inform me. Oo.j^ ..x,a.i .^ v^i tXJi 

B. ( V ) 

O, certainly ! But if you ^ Q j ' 4 ' r\' \ "\ 

had said, " w Aen //orse is =^ XJ J ^-i?^ * S J*J*T ' W1 

ready," it would have been " 2*' ' 5 *''" ' > >'* ~- 

nearer the idiom. 3*j .j^Oi'J ^ iW*^ O*~-\ 3^W 



(') From llJ i*Jb, properly, "To know." But this Verb is frequently used, 
also, for " To think," " To deem," " To believe," &c. 

( 3 ) This IS, which may be termed expletive, is frequently used with the 
Numerals : it implies unity, or individuality : so, the literal meaning of 

o ^ o o? 

the expression j>c1 IS <u^J is, " two or three individual letters." 



( 4 ) jjj^y*^ literally, signifies "To command"; but in polite conversation, 
as in writing, it is often employed metaphorically, to signify " To speak," 
"To honour," "To regard," "To condescend," &c. See the Compound 
Verbs, p. 85. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. O^O 143 



A. 0) 

Is not the word " horse" 
singular? 

B. 

Doubtless : but a word in 
the singular number does 

not always imply merely r,x 

" unity." ' 4XvX. 



A. () 

Nevertheless, what I said 
cannotbe(altogether)wrong; 
for we, at least, have occa- 
sion/or <;o Worses. 



B. 

Yours " is an apology 
worse than the fault." [Per- 
sian proverb.] What you 
first said was only out of 

idiom; but \+^jL& t which 

you now say, is, moreover, 

wrong, even according to "" \ C \ 

(the rules of) Syntax. Ci~l aJS- 



A 
If you will do (me) the 

kindness to explain this 

point distinctly, I shall be *~* j U* 

very much obliged to you. 



(*) The proper meaning of this word is "unless": it may also mean 
" perhaps," " rather," &c. : it is likewise employed very often to express a 
Verb interrogatively. See the Interrogative Verbs, p. 81; and also the Ad- 
versative Disjunctives, p. 116. 

( 6 ) This proverbial expression, in Persian, implies that the excuse is unsatis- 
factory ; and, in fact, it puts the pleader still more in the wrong. 

* See the Adjectives, p. 29. 



144 (It !*) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. ( V ) 

Most willingly: but we ^'.2* '. - ''\n i-fr 

have no leisure just now: *-**-**J ^jW ^-*-^ W\.l 

when we are riding together -> o T , ? T o^ >>,>>* >, 

(literally, go riding), if you (^M-^ (jp 
wish it, we will converse on 
this topic. 3 .i _x&W^. 

A. (\) 

You (have) said well (well 
said) : be it so. 



DIALOGUE II. 

A- O) 

You have not forgotten > > '^' >/ ^ lo* ^ OT^^O^T 
(your) forenoon s promise. **?' * ^c-^>*^ i j^ C^? ^ fcX l? J^ 



Apromise.madetoafriend - 
like you, can never be for- 

g tten - 



B. (^ ) 

It is well in my remem- >, > "'-MI ^( '\ 

brance. Now, listen to the ^A* \)*&> *!*->' f^r 3 ^^ l ri> 
conclusion. 



(') .j?/^; literally, means "on the eye," or, "on my eye"; a metaphor 
frequently employed in Persian to express extreme willingness; as are also 

O z *> f 

Ci^Xo^l^ "with gratitude on my soul"; J^cJ?! "with (all) my 

".'i , , 1 1 ^T- I '~>s 

heart and soul"; f-*j.^-.tnj " on the top of my eye"; /*^*^J Jt/t/? " u P on 
my head, and upon my eye"; &c. &c. 

( * ) This word, as well as several other Compounds of the same class, have 
already been fully explained. See the Compound Nouns, pp. 110, 111. 

( ' ) See Note 8. Dialogue 1. . 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



1*5 



' \- ? ' -\ \ 2 \\"\ 

In the first place, you know X^. U^uJ JOfiJ &= tXx3\tV \<U) ^1 

what part of speech the ,, _ ^ f , . 

word "Horse" is. 

A. _ _0) 

Yes ; it is a Substantive : ' ^ ^ ^J "J\ \^\ 
but if you will do (me) the " 

V T,.TT_--5J'0 , 

kindness to explain (the 
matter) in English, I shall 
understand it better. 

B. 

Nouns Substantive, in Persian, of any denomination, 
whether Simple or Compound, may be classed under three 
heads Specific, Generic, and Nouns of Multitude. 

Specific Nouns always imply unity, or individuality, in 
their significations; and are, in themselves, definite as to 
the things or beings they represent. Under the first of 
these heads are considered to come all proper names of 

O ^ T ^ 

persons, places, seasons, countries, &c. ; as, J^ss-l the proper 

OO Z'l' 

name of a person ; AJU& of an empire ; <ul of a city ; 

5 , 

^Lgj (spring) "of a season/' &c. &c. Nouns of this class may, 
however, be rendered unspecific, or vague, in their applica- 
tion, if used for the purpose of expressing the character or 

o^ o? 

quality of some person or thing. For instance : when Ju^ 
(the Eastern Hercules), the proper name of a hero, is meta- 

o ^ 

phorically used to imply bravery ; or, ^Lgj " spring/' to 
signify freshness or cheerfulness. The Verbs, of which 
Nouns of this description become the agents, must strictly 

O , _ T ^O x 

agree with them in number; as, JwoT.x.o.t "Ahmad came"; 



( 2 ) See Adverbs of Order, p. 122; and also the Examples, p. 125. 

U 



14-6 



PEKS1AN GRAMMAR. 



"Hassan went"', Vj^ tl ^*=>"j >xo-l "Ahmad and 
Hassan are going"; &c. &c. 

Nouns of Multitude always imply plurality in their signi- 
fications ; as, j&' "an army"; "a flock"; &0. The 
Verbs belonging to this class of Nouns are better always to 
be in the Singular Number ; excepting when the Nouns 
themselves are used in the Plural Number, in which case 

->s_ ),*>' 

the Verbs of course must agree with them ; as, Jo I J^^CiJ 

if , Girls') ri, 

"the army * coming"; jJj^c^CU ^/& "both the armies 
are going"; &c. In other respects, they are to be consi- 
dered as Generic Nouns. 

Generic Nouns are those which designate whole genera, 
species, classes, or the like, of beings, things, or events ; as, 
vl~J "horse"; ^T "man"; JJ^ "tree"; JU^ 
" entertainment"; &c. They may be considered as definite, 
so far as they distinguish the genera, &c. But they may 
further be defined, rendered vague, or indefinite, as the 
circumstances of Case, Number, or any other grammatical 

O Is 

construction, may decide ; for instance, c_*J " horse," has 
an abstract meaning when used merely as a Generic Noun : 
it implies that species of animal, without reference to any 
number, or any circumstance under which the animal may 
appear. If we would express the idea of any, or one, in an 

1 s ') .. I 11 Is 

indefinite sense, -we must use the cua^-j^b or^j^JJ; as, 

o 

(jvJ "a certain horse," or "any horse." Any particular 
number expressed before a Generic Noun will make it 
definite ; as, 



In my stable there are two ..-..._, . . X . N ..i..^ 



In his service there used to be tv}SJOwc J J & i L ^ .^ 
<Aree seri'ants. -7-"\J J __ -? _ > 









PERSIAN GBAMMAH. (U*^) 147 

The various Cases in which a Substantive is declined will 
render a Generic Noun definite, as well as when used in 
the Plural Number*. 

In the following expressions you will observe how a 
Generic Noun (beginning with its abstract meaning) may be 
rendered definite in various ways. 

(A) horse cannot pass over 
the sea. 

Both horse and sea are here used in the abstract. 

Once upon a time, a horse fell '(- '\ -M ' \ 

into the sea. ^*' , ib .iiJ/ cuJ 



.. 

All three, l^J, <"^vJ, and e^j, are here used indefinitely. 

My horse to-day forded 
this river. 



Here all three, *)lo^, j^, and L_^.!, are expressed defi- 
nitely by the modification of the several Cases in which 

T , 

these Generic Nouns respectively appear ; the first, t__~J , 
being in a state of construction with the Personal Pronoun 

T ' O T ^ J> 

^, and at the same time Nominative to the Verb o-i>J^ ; 
though either circumstance would have been sufficient to 
have made it definite: and the second and the third, 

, x OO 9 To ? 

&j\oi3)j andjy, are also each doubly defined; the first, by 

o 

the demonstrative J (this), as well as by its being an 
Adverb ; and the second, by the Demonstrative ^ (this), 
as well as by the Ablative Particle j\. 

With regard to the agreement of this class of Nouns with 
their respective Verbs in point of number, all I can tell you, 



* See the Declension of Nouns, p. 2z. 



14<8 (If*) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



as a general rule, is, that with Nouns of rational beings, 
the Verbs, whether in the Active or in the Passive Voice, 
must strictly agree in number. With other animate beings, 
this rule is occasionally relaxed when the Verb is in the Pas- 

O OxO x 

sive Voice : for instance, you may say, in Persian, *_~J,Uj- 

'? 9 Ox O ' 

&&*, "four horses was killed/' However, this phraseo- 
logy is an affected innovation of modern origin ; and I would 

; o ^ ? 'i s ~* " o x o , 

advise you always to say <*J&jJ^(~ r ~\j(jt-- "four horses 
were killed/' But if you happen to be speaking of two or 
more animals of distinct genera, the Verb must, under all cir- 
cumstances, agree with the Noun ; as, 

The horse and the ass are not 
of the same genus. 

A horse, an ass, and an ox were 
killed. 

Respecting Nouns representing inanimate objects, except 
under certain circumstances (which experience alone can 
teach you), you may, if you prefer it, put the Verb in the 
Singular ; though in putting it in the Plural, to agree with its 
Nominative, you will not be wrong grammatically, nor quite 
out of idiom. But in this particular you must closely 
attend to the general conversation of educated natives as 
well as to your books, and form your own judgment ; for I 
can hardly point out any rule, on this point, which may not 
be subject to various exceptions. All I can say, however, is, 
that you are never obliged to use a Verb in the Singular 
when your Noun is in the Plural : at the same time, you 
must observe, that it is frequently done, both by eminent 
writers and by the most correct speakers amongst the natives 
of Persia, especially when the Verb is expressed in the Pas- 
sive Voice : for instance, you may say, either, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (I Pi) 149 

O P O x 

' The houses of the people, & ^>\^~ , was destroyed/' or, 

o o x r o x 

jjj^i, s-JJ/s- "were destroyed": but in the Active Voice, you 
should always give the preference to the Plural, when the 

OO xx O?O O OO x Is x 

Noun is in that Number ; as, AJJjf.^JLjMtt+A^jA^QJk- "The 
houses of this city are very small " ; though some would say, 

O O x x O? O O 

e^v-^s-^bwj " zs very small/' Although, in bringing toge- 
ther several Nouns of distinct classes so as to form the 
Nominative to a Verb, the Verb must then be in the Plural, 

Ox Ox Ox O ? O'_? 

as, jJolj^loJli-j^^Jiljt jl "water, fire, and earth, are of 
opposite natures"; yet, when they partake of the same 
quality or class of things, the Verb may, with equal pro- 
priety, be put either in the Singular or Plural Number : for 

O 1 O O O* OOx *"0*"v Ox 

instance, you may either say, c^Jb L^^J^-XST! j^^Jl U 5jj,J 

Txx T x 

i>yu>J " In our garden, grapes, figs, and apples, is not to be 

Oxx x O 

found/' or jJ^i-xr' e^jb "are not to be found." In like 

OOx? Ox* Oxx? ^ Ox Ox Ox OOx 

manner, you may either say, J^^>*^^>^b^ fcli i^>*'>*fcjil;* 3 

Ox_O Ox OxS? 

jjj ^o fSJjjjL* " At this season, snow, rain, hail, thunder and 

' Ox_ O Ox 

lightning, frequently comes together," or duuT -Jtb "come 
together." But if the Verb is governed by Substantives that 
have no tangible or bodily existence, such as, time, day, 
night, joy, grief, &c., &c., the Singular Number is commonly 

OO^OOx"--'?-' 1O O 

preferred ; as, *jJ^*- ^_^U *a>U ^ c^^L^JL ''' It is (now) 

' Ox' O x 

many years since we were school-fellows"; >f/rj^*>tj*c 

O ,-_ T^'J'Oxy'Oxl ' 

jjT -*lj*.jl* JjJj "Grief, joy, death, and life, all come* 

O x <" O O Oo '^' tlt >' 99 O x O x 

from God " ; .xiC^ Uiil j.^U CSJ^^DJ ^'irT 'j- " Manliness 
and generosity makes this demand/' &c. &c. Now, gram- 
matically incorrect as this idiom appears to be, it may still 
be defended, in some measure, by the following chain of 
reasoning. A Verb indicates an action ; an action naturally 



150 (Id.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

implies either power or volition on the part of the agent, 
which power or volition is not possessed by inanimate objects ; 
and therefore they cannot always be considered in the light 
of real agents of the Verb. To this may perhaps be 
ascribed the origin of the grammatical incongruity in the 
Persian phraseology, which I have been exemplifying, and 
its subsequent continuance. 

As to the situation of the Verb with respect to its Nomi- 
native, the latter is uniformly placed before the former ; as, 
jjlj;'^"! went"; ^TUA "You came"; jjUj-iJl 
"They said"; &c. &c. You must except poetry, of course, 
in which a poet often deviates from this rule, to adjust the 
measure of his verses ; or in translations, from the Arabic, of 
the sacred writings, where a strictly literal translation, even 
as to the position of the words, is thought to be indispensa- 
ble. The Arabs, uniformly in their language, place the 
Verb before the Nominative. 

I have wandered too far from the point which led me into 
this long dissertation : I resume it. Now, in the first place, 
I have to remind you that Generic Nouns, in Persian, may 
be rendered strictly definite, so as to represent one, or more 
than one, particular individual of the same genus, in various 
ways : By declining the Noun, or adding any of the Parti- 

O 11, 

cles which decide the case ; as, ^J^ c_~J " Did you see 
the horse?" By expressing the Noun in the Plural Number ; 

O OTx^ O O ^ 

as, ^JoJoujj Ijl^JuJ "Did you approve of the horses?" By 
bringing it into contact with any other part of speech with 
which it may form any grammatical connection ; as, t^J 

O O * OxxOx - x 

i c-^J^'ji-H ^ " Mi/ horse is better than your horse": 

** 

or, By placing any of the cardinal numbers before it, so as 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (!*>') 



express one, two, three, or more; as, 

T X O xO 

jjjo^lxo "Four horses were drawing his carriage." 

1 s s s P 1* s , 

Now, when you first said to me ^Ai-l^oU^ Jo! xjUl 
>>* ' 

Juu, your expression meant " When the horses are ready " &c. ; 

because you expressed the generic Noun in the Plural Num- 
ber. But in Persian, they never say "the horse," or "the 
horses," unless it is intended to express some particular 
horse, or horses, respecting which there is some understand- 
ing between the parties who are talking on the subject. 

You know that we were not speaking about any particular 
horses at the time ; nor was there any understanding 
between us with respect to any horse, to which your expres- 
sion might allude : we merely wanted to ride on horseback, 
not on the back of the horses ; and, to convey this meaning, 

O Q^ 

the generic Noun c^vJ "horse," would have been quite 
sufficient. You were, therefore, out of idiom, in so far as 
you preferred a definite Noun when you ought to have pre- 
ferred the generic one. But your expression, grammati- 
cally speaking, was perfectly correct in itself ; and any per- 
son, not listening to our conversation at the time, would 
discover no defect, even of idiom, in it. But in your second 

Q O If , 10..T? m , 

expression, -^b^^c iy_$jUjt)ii'l Ux^l^, you were wrong, 
both grammatically and idiomatically ; for your expression 
(understood in connection with the preceding sentence), if 
translated literally into English, would run thus : " For, at 
the fewest, we have occasion for the two horses." 

You were incorrect as to idiom, for the reasons I have 
already explained respecting your first expression ; that is, 
in having used the Noun definitely, by adding the Accusa- 
tive Particle \j : and you were also grammatically wrong, 



152 (I Of) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

if 

because, either the cardinal number ^ " two," alone, 
placed before the Noun as you used it, or putting only the 
Accusative Noun in the Plural Number, would have been 
quite sufficient (if necessary at all) to render the generic 
Noun definite : you made use of bad Grammar, therefore, 
in using both ; that is, placing the cardinal number before 
an Accusative Noun already in the Plural. 



A 

But in English we always .. ^ ,_, ^ ^ 
use the cardinal number with 
a Plural ord (Noun). 



JU*l 



B. 

I am aware that in En- 
glish they say two horses; 
but every tongue has a (its) 
peculiar idiom. It is now 
grown late. Come, let us 
|o back. 



DIALOGUE III. 

A- M) 

Peace be unto you ! (Good 
morning to you ! ) 

B. (^ 

And upon you be peace, ''".. '..'' 

and the blessing of God ! **' **^y (* 

A. ( \ ) 

I was dreaming strangely 
last night. 




(') There is no word, in common use, in Persian, to correspond exactly 

O, O ->, O 

with the English word "To dream"; but ^joj t_)l^i- or ^JjJ i 'Iji- 
both mean, " To see while asleep," or " To see in sleep," t.e. " To dream. 



PEESIAN GKAMMAR. 



(' C O 153 



B. 

May it tend to good 

What were you dreaming OOwVcXx/c c-M*^. &$-\ > tXj U ** 

about ? 

A. 

I dreamt that I was stand- 
ing in a very spacious plain 
full of horses; and several 
persons on foot, each by * 
turns having separated a 
single horse from the great 
herd, shewed it, first, to a 
personage, apparently their 
chief, who was standing 
close by ; and afterwards, 
on a signal from him, having 
made the same horse pass 
in review before me, they 
allowed it to return into the 
herd : till, from amongst 
them, a vicious horse, be- 
coming excited, kicked me 
in such a manner, that I 
started out of (my) sleep. 

B. 



. 

And found, that you had 
fallen on your back 1 

A. 

T\ II i^J T 

Friend! started up, I say. 
J 

How could I have fallen on 

y back ? 







( 2 ) A common Interjection, or ejaculatory expression, thrown out by the 
Persians on such occasions, or when one sneezes in company. It is also used 
frequently on occasions of surprise, or when any sudden or unexpected event, of 
a doubtful tendency or appearance, takes place ; pretty much the same as when 
one says in English, " What is the matter ? " "I hope all is well ! " &c. &c. 

X 



154 (UP) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



B. 

Then the danger was, that (JvA-O J t^^tf &2\ ^ 

you might fall on your face ? 

o o^o? o ^ o:^xx o - x* 3 ^ ' 

Joking apart ; come, and ^^ jf, ' \ -^ f \ \ ^ U$ , \- 

tell me, if you can, what is >" ' -7; S^- 7 ^ ' 

the interpretation of this "J O ' u ^ ^,",\ l \\ 
dream ! 

B. 

You know that I, your 
humble servant, am not the 
Prophet Joseph. p***-^ 

A. (\ \ , , : , , 

Still you are jesting: ~\^ ^ %*J J^L-\ , (_5LC>- t ^^'^ 
speak seriously ; and let me \ " ', 'X ^ 
know (/if. see) what can be 
the cause of this dream. 



B 

" . ' 

My dear fellow ! the jest OoW> 

seems on your part : other- , 

wise, I can hardly believe J* 

you to be really ignorant of ^ ^ " ^ > y. ^ . 

the cause of your dream; for ^T Sr ' "T 

->, O TOxO > 

it appears very obvious. t>jVfOw ^JcX> .V.X J 



A. (\) 

With all this, I still wish 0,^0 < ^- x' > \\ 

to hear (lit. that I may hear) *j>^ \&j\ *& **})*&* LT *^ C^ 
it from you. 

B ( ^ } 

X 

Yesterday, for nearly four L, 
hours, we were on horseback 
together : just before riding, ^> 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (loo) 155 

O O ff "}*) 9 *J x Q T ,, O O ^ ' 

^J-*^ &^= ^j &_LJ\^ .j ^jjCji-LT 



a discussion had arisen be- 

tween us, the origin and the x ,, 

subjectof which was "Horse.' 1 '' j\? L$yj~> CA-O J^J i 

Whilst riding, we returned oo.,, T>O, > o < > 

to the same discussion, and 

(the mention of) Horse, and 

flbrm, in various forms, 



passed between us, in our ' i *>*'*'*>'> 

&-*A \4Jj\ ^ txo <xo .j c? 5 

grammatical illustrations. > J* <*J 

Now, after all this, if the i . 

c_>U^ ,i 

idea of Horse, even when * 

you were asleep, again pass- 



. 
ed in your mind, ought we ' 

wonder at it ? 



A. , 

No ; but my wonder is at jOU^ixS .A-J /.w uyia 
the details, and other oc- 
currences which could have *t_j 
had no connection at all with Sr 7 
the subject of our discus- 
sion. 



Our dreams are not always 
composed of elements which, 
in the same connected form, 




( 3 ) See Note 8. Dialogue 1. 

( 4 ) The Persians, in polite conversations, seldom make use of the plain and 

Ox T O s 

decided Negative tj " No." k_i- " Good," is a common substitute for that 

expression. Several other ejaculatory expressions are likewise employed for the 

*>,!,? O^J'Oxx 

same purpose; such as, l \jj t Jo- "God forbid!" <d!l.aXL<! "^ pray God 
for mercy ! " &c. &c. Many of the Adverbs also answer the same end ; as, 

f xx *xT ' O ), 

I jjl , ls,\ia< , jji> " Never," " Not at all," " For ever," &c. &c. But these last 
expressions are Emphatical Negatives : the former is only a Simple one. 



0<1 ) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



may have at any time taken 
place in reality, or have 
passed in our imagination 
when awake. Coherence, 
consistency, exactitude, and 
order, do not necessarily 
enter the train of ideas which 
pass in our minds when 
dreaming. Nevertheless, 
this dream of yours is the 
most coherent of all the < ' ^ ' t ^.^' 
dreams of which I have ever \ Jfyr 

heard ; for there is not a 
single part in it, the con- 
nection of which, with a par- 
ticular part in that discus- 
sion of ours, might not, after 
a little reflection, be traced. 
And I am rather pleased 
at this circumstance, be- 
cause it shews that my ex- 
planations have made some 
impression on your mind. 

A. 

I know what you are about 
to say ; the extent of which 
is this that I may suppose 
that spacious plain to have 
been the long chapter which 
you repeated on grammar ; 
and the crowd of horses in 
that plain to be, either the 
representation of a " Noun 
of Multitude," or of "Horse, 
in the abstract." But what 
part of our discussion can 
point to those perons who, in 
that regular order, passed 



,. 



-i\ j U' " * \ 'A > r f\ u 
J*J '^ * vJ .. 





PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (l& v ) 157 



the horses in review before 

me? ^^^ 



B. 

Perhaps the different go- 
verning particles, with which 
they transfer a Noun Sub- 
stantive from one gramma- 
', case into another. 



A. 

You do not jest badly ; but 
can you give me any idea 
(lit. can you tell me at all) 
what relation that respec- 
table personage, to whom 
they presented the horses 
first, and afterwards, by his 
direction, to me, can have 
to the subject of our discus- 
sion? 

B. 

Since I see that you are en- 
joyingmy joke, there maybe 
no harm in my saying (lit. if 
I were to say), that that re- 
spectable personage might re- 
present your humble servant; 
who, having first examined, 
and properly weighed those 
examples in due order, pre- 
sented them to the consi- 
deration of your honour. 





A 

3 -T < O O Tx x >?, o , T O x T 

This, also, is not (lit. was \X~ ^.jji j I V<| J> jJoo AxJ j ,. 
not) very bad. Butyoucan ,^ * ' '^ ' '?/, 

with difficulty get out of <Ais. ^ &= jj jj^x- Jff L5 'y ^ . ..j 



158 (ISA) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Tell me, if you can, what 
might be that ricious horse 
which inflicted upon me so 
tremendous a kick ? 

B. 

The eraspemto* animal 
whom you originally goaded 
with the <Aree grammatical 




A. 

The truth of the matter 
is, that I wished to know to 
what extent you were a be- 
liever in dreams : but now 

..^ ^ 

I see that you, like myself, Vl, *AV<& &_i -x.J ,50*^. \_^c\ 
have no belief in dreams 

at all. O 

( 

B. 

I do not understand what 
you intend by the word "be- 
lief." I do certainly believe 
this that several events, 
which I can now very well 
remember, have passed in 
my imagination when I was 



A. ( \) 

agai 
tion. 



A. 

You again evade the ques- 5 

ion. I mean to say, that *^ ? 




(an Arabic Verbal Noun) means, "To feign ignorance," from 

" He was ignorant." Whenever a Verb is expressed in this form in 

-"' " ~ 

Arabic, it generally implies Jiction ; as, ijoro "He was ill"; rXJ;l<" "He 

ftigned illness"; &c. &c. The Persians have taken many Verbal Nouns of this 
son from the Arabs, which they use for the same purpose ; and, with the aid of 
the Persian Auxiliaries, Verbs are made of them. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



0*^) 




it appears to me that you do 

not believe (lit. are not a 

believer in this), that the 

events which we see in our 

dreams can have any con- 

nection with the future ; or, ^ ^ 

in other words (fif. other C_$.^\ V3.ljjtJ\J txLij\J Sa^j^ LJu 

phrase), those events do not '0^,0x00 

inform us beforehand of A x a\ C. (j, \ /ji-J \ .V _jO 

what may happen to us in , , ->/ 6 o^ o, o o ,o ^, ' 

time to come. cXij t x3\ J *JJ^lc.jLX*J&a2\ ' 

> V_^ -^' ; ^ 



B. 

Would that it were so, in- 
deed ! and that those events 
really gave intelligence of 
the future ! Then I would 
never rise from bed, except 
to welcome a promised hap- 
piness, or to ward off a 
threatened evil. In this 
world, I would not wish for 
any other Paradise ! 

A. 

I, too, (would act and feel) 
in the same manner ; but I 
fear that we might not find 
that Paradise in such a de- 
lightful state as we now 
fancy ; and that, after two 
or three dreams, we would 
pray that our visions might 
all arise, either from fulness 
of stomach, or from lying 
(falling) upon our back, i.e. 
when asleep. 




O O x 

( 6 ) This elegant expression, i__;Li- vji^-v, , is not susceptible of a literal 
translation. The nearest, perhaps, is " Apparatus of sleep." 



1(50 (M.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. 

Why, and from what cause ? 



A. 

For this reason ; that if 
there be really any good 

coming to you, it will doubt- ^ V> < 

less come in due time : what * TT; ' -* 

more (would you) gain, if 



you were to know it before- iJ~jj-* } ^* ^ "^ *^ VJ 

hand ? As for me, it is better 

that I should not know (any &XAJI ..x&J /.yes (X*M t>o^ ~A*/ v-^ > '^ 

* ^l * * ^^/ _J * J ^^^ y ^J 

thing about it) ; for accord- 
ing to the degree of the plea- 
sure which I may have an- 
ticipated while waiting for 
it (lit. from the expectation 
of it), in the same propor- 
tion my enjoyment, from the 
actual possession of it, will 
have been diminished. And 
if the interval between the 
dream and its realization 
may have been prolonged, 
then, perhaps, I shall derive 
no pleasure at all from it. 
On the other hand (side), 
if the dream foretells (gives 
intelligence) of a calamity 
or a misfortune, see what 
great misery it is to know 
it beforehand ! And in the 
like manner, if the calamity 
be great, or the interval long, 
our reason in the mean- 
while may give way, from 
the intensity of grief, or 
ourselves be altogether de- 
stroyed. 




* See Adverbs of Time, p. 120. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. 

Your statements are true ; 
but more truths (other 

. 

truths also) may be told \ ^^j^ lowc i_)b 
on this subject. You only 



detailed the disadvantages <^ (J ^ (** LJo j 
of the proposition, and said 
nothing of its advantages. 

But as the subject leads * ' "* m ~ 
(us) into Metaphysics, we 

1 , i 1 . , 

had better not plunge into 

- (^ . J 

it any deeper. i 

A. ( n 

Particularly as it now ^ 'T '\ \ \\\ 

comes into my recollection, *^= > 6 W ^ 
that I have an engagement 

somewhere, and must take -ysA.w OO\_J fj'^ itXCj <i^ (vj- / 

my leave of you (/i/. must 

be permitted to go). Will ^ Ij \.j ^^J^j b J 1^6 & 

you honour my lodgings to- "-^ v- x^ x -^ I v 

morrow ? (/#. bring honour ' "r- ^ 

into your servant* lodging.) - V J > 

B. ( V) 

God ! T wil1 wait 



A. (\) 

At breakfast-time, at din- ''i 'i . ,. 2 7 

ner-time, or both ? J^ ^ tlO, 



* See the Interjections, pp. 81 84. 

O Ox 

(') ..Li. or iL^J, literally, mean "morning "and "evening" respectively; and 
the Persians apply them to the two meals which they take in the course of the 
day and night. The general mode of living in Persia is briefly thus: The peo- 
ple get up in time to say their prayers before sun-rise. Soon after prayer, they 
partake of something very trifling, just to break their fast part of a biscuit, with 
a small cup of coffee, or even hot water with a little ginger and sugar, &c. &c., 

O x O x O 

and they call this ^LuLi Ixili , literally, " to break one's fast." But between 

eleven 



1 62 1 PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. 

To dinner, I am engaged. 

A. 

Then, let it be at break- 
fast-time. 

B( i * ) 
. \. ^r ' 

May your kindness never \"*'\ ^ V ' L^J^ 

diminish ! 






A- (\) 

You will do me honour .> . . < TO. -50 
(/z<. you will make me ho- 
noured). Adieu! 

B. 

God be with you ! 

A. 

At breakfast-time, I shall 
expect you. 



DIALOGUE IV. 

( \ } 
A. (calling his Servants.) \ ' / 

Boys ! Who is here ? 



eleven and twelve they make a substantial meal (hot and cold), which they term 

O Qx O 

il^i , but not quite so substantial as the grand meal at night, called ..li . The 
time for this meal varies according to the season, for it is never taken until an 
hour or two after sunset. This, however, is the habit of the better and more 
fashionable classes. Shop-keepers, and those people who are obliged to go early 
to their work, make a hearty meal at once, every one according to his means, 

O 

before going to work, which they call liiLJ "fast," or "breakfast"; another at 

O 

noon, which they call ci^iil- (meaning also the time of the day); and a third at 

O 

night, i. e. the .,li , which, however, they take generally earlier than the higher 
classes, who are not anxious to go to bed so early. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (I IT) 163 



A SERVANT. 
Yes ' Sir! 



A. O) 

I am to have (/if. I have) 



i aui to nave (in. i nave; I % I \ 

some guests at breakfast- [*J u^-*-&-** jM ' * 
time to-day. Be very at- 
tentive (i.e. have every thing *A-\JijL> &j^ .j^ t-i.^ 
properly arranged). 

o o > o 

SERVANT. 

Very well, Sir. What do ^ 
you command us to prepare, 
besides the ordinary things ? 

A- (V) 

Let there be both a pelaw 

andchilaw; several kabawbs 
of fowl and lamb ; and what- 
ever else you yourselves may 
think of (lit. may come into 

your minds). But tell the ^^ (S ^ , ^^ .. ^ 
cook to be very careful about 
the cookery (see Note 2), 
and to make good dishes. 



(') i_^o.L (an Arabic word) literally means "a companion"; hence, the 

* if 

master or owner of any thing. The Indians apply this term to the English ; and 
the Persians have borrowed it from them. 

o 

( 2 ) j^^ola- (of Arabic origin) means any thing present, or always ready. 

' '1,9 

With regard to eatables, it is employed in contradistinction to ^jJaC 1 " things 
to be cooked," and implies all sorts of preserves, sweetmeats, cream, cheese, 
butter, fruits, &c. &c., as they are always ready, and may be had presently. 

(*) There are several words in the above passage which require explanation, 

"^ ^ ^ P O s O f O 

tjoasr t < -;U, (jyf*~ > j^s- > an ^ $$ Pilaw, I presume, is familiar to 
the English reader : it is made of rice dressed with meat, butter, spices, &c. &c : 

a dish 



164 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SERVANT. 

The tailor is here: he - '^'., ' ^ '^ >. .> 

says you had ordered him S *J*J* ^ ^ *^* C*-Aas 
to come (lit. that he should 
come). 

A. O) 

Tell him to come (lit. say 
he may come) to-morrow 
afternoon : I have no leisure 
to-day. M\ 14X5 

o o^ o 

SERVANT. 



The horse-dealer was again ^ ^ ?->,-> -., om^oo 

here to-day; and he was C^fi-C-e. ^.J Wu\ j. .*\ j\-> 
saying, " I know of several 
(lit. I have got a clue to) "" u 7 \ ' '' * 

, , iP * PI--J UJA. <_ 

good horses. \J ^f 



a dish complete in itself, and eaten just as it is brought to table. Chi! aw is also 

o ? 

made of rice ; but boiled plain, and eaten with ^ ,. i- : this means any food 
made savoury and relishing, or pungent, by means of sauces. In conjunction 

O f O 

with bread, it simply means condiment ; as, {jyf- ^ , which distinguishes it 

from the generic term (j~jf*- . Its foundation, however, is meat of any kind, 
dressed in a great variety of sauces, with dried fruits, spices, &c. &c. Each dish, 

o f 

so made, has its specific name : i^/vj*- ma y he said to take the place of 
curry on the table, in so far as it is eaten with plain boiled rice ; but they are 

O s 

never made so hot as the Indian dish. 4->^ , literally, means meat roasted, 
whether it be fowl or flesh, and it includes even Jlsh. There is a great variety 

~>s f 

of this also made in Persia. t _jJ^' , for the explanation of this word, see the 
preceding Note. 

( 4 ) This Arabic word, literally, means a "conductor"; hence, it is applied 
to all those persons who form a third party between the buyer and the seller, 

in order to conduct the bargain. It is, however, more commonly applied to 

*>'*,' 
dealers in cattle and other animals. <ri itj (in the feminine gender) is also a 

term applied to female hawkers, and the elderly women who negotiate to bring 
about a marriage. 

( 5 ) This word, literally, means "a trace," "a sign," or "indication"; and 

the 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 0^) 165 




A. 

f O O 

Why did not you inform \_^i <X-J^ 
me, then ? You knew that , ' , 
I had occasion for a good t 
horse or two ! 



SERVANT. 

You had not yet risen 
from sleep, Sir. We told 
him, "Wait till the Sahib 
wakes" (lit. should wake); 
but he said, " I have busi- 
ness at another place, and 
must go ; but if the Sahib 
wishes to see me, whenever 
he may think proper, if he . 
sends a man [to say so], I * 
will come directly." 



A. 

Does any one of you know 
his residence ? 



the horse-dealer means to say, that he has got scent of, or clue to, some good 
horses. Here I take the opportunity of explaining, once for all, the difference 
between the idiom of the English and Persian, as to the manner of repeating the 
expressions of another person. In English, on such occasions, the speaker gene- 
rally employs the third person or persons ; as, " He said, he intended going to 
town", &c. &c. ; or, " They told me, they had been up all night"; &c. &c. But in 
Persian, usually, the exact expressions of the parties are quoted by the present 
speaker, without any change in them whatsoever ; as will be seen in the several 
instances (which I have purposely left undisturbed, in order to shew the idiom) 
in the statements of this Persian Servant. I may think it right, hereafter, to de- 
viate from this strictly literal mode of translating, and follow the English idiom ; 
if not always, at all events occasionally. 



166 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SERVANT. 

Yes, Sir; I know his house 6 '' ' \' 
(fc. I am a guide to it). [* ' 

A. 

Tx- O T^ 

Then go immediately, and ao *A\suo <.v 

T . , V ** 

say I wish to see him. But , ,,, , 0,, ^ 

what is the use of buying (j<X Ua^u.^ J\j\ V-^W. &Sk.\/e\ 
horses? So long as this 
groom remains in my sta- 
bles, I shall never possess a 
horse fit for riding ! 



(*) This is also an Arabic word, meaning, strictly, " a guide." It is, how- 
ever, vulgar to use it in any other sense in Persian, as this Servant has done. 
Indeed, there are many other low phrases in the language assigned to this man 

Ox O ? O^xx OxX O^ f O 'VofDy- 

in the Dialogue ; such as, *j!J i]^ , /^];(j~' <^^- j i*-**^ ^_/~^ > 'V 1^==^ 5 
&c. &c., all of which should be avoided by persons wishing to speak the Persian 
language correctly or elegantly. 

The generality of better servants, mechanics, and small tradesmen, throughout 
the greater part of Persia (owing perhaps to the circumstance of their not being 
kept at so great a distance, as they are in some other countries, by the more- 
educated classes of society), do not, in general, speak bad Persian. Their lan- 
guage, though necessarily devoid of classical taste and elegance, is, however, upon 
the whole, tolerably correct But when we consider that it is the language of 
a very numerous class of men, the greatest number of whom, perhaps, can neither 
read nor write, we may wonder more at the general accuracy and tact with which 
they express themselves, than at their occasional mistakes or their uncouth 
phraseology. A beginner, however, had better avoid learning his Persian from 
them. On this account, in the course of these Dialogues, I shall introduce cha- 
racters of this description very sparingly : and when I do introduce them, I shall 
make them speak, in point of grammar at all events, correctly. 

The reader, if at all proficient in the Persian language, cannot have failed to 
observe already, in the few sentences which this man has uttered (independently 
of the low phrases above cited), the Syntactical looseness of his style ; his ill-con- 
structed sentences; the clumsy way in which he quotes, or rather puts, his own 
vulgar expressions into the mouth of another ; and the difficulty which he seems 
to feel in delivering himself. There can be neither pleasure nor profit in the 
perusal of such language as this. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR ( P v ) 167 



SERVANT. 

Yesterday, I told him that 
the Sahib was very much 
vexed, because of the bay 
horse becoming lame : but 
he swore that he was not in 
fault (W. had no fault), as 
the horse was quite lame 
when the Sahib bought it. 



A. t , ,, t ,; 

Yes; but not so lame as .\ 7 aU$\\ *_5oo . 
his worse -than -the -offence / , 

excuse. I am greatly dis- y\ ~ Jija*, V> 
pleased with that man, for 
he does not appear honest. 
At all events, I can never 
confide in him any more; 
for he may kill me (for me) 
a horse daily. He must go 
away from my stables. Go, 
and tell him so (lit. say to 
him after this manner) ! ! 




O ^ 9 s 



B. (coming in.) 
Friend ! O my dear friend ! 
(lit. friend ! friend !) May 
thy morn be good ! for good 
comes of thy morning (i.e. 
morning's work). What un- 
lucky being is the cause of ' t ' ,, 
this excitement ? or perhaps $ 
you have had another dream? 

A. <U 

Welcome, my friend ! " I 
had intended (lit. said) when 



(') See Note 5. Dialogue 1. 

(") See the Diminutive Nouns, p. 127. 



168 (HA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



you came, to tell you what 
had vexed me (lit. the grief 
of my heart}. But what am 
I to say ? since all the pain- 
ful feeling is removed (lit. 
grief goes) from my heart, 
whenever you come." I have 
had (seen) no fresh dream ; 
but the interpretation of my 
old dream has been realized 
(lit. into manifestation). For 
it is now certain, that the 
animal which roused me out 
of my sleep with a kick, was 
not the horse which you 
described, but [it was] this 
vicious groom of mine, who ,, ^ 
has lamed my poor horses ,.j\ \ 
so, that henceforth, perhaps, 
they may only be able to 
raise their hoofs (lit. raise 
the hoof) from the ground 
in a dream. 

B. 

The remedy for a tight 
shoe is taking the foot out of 
it; and the cure for the tooth- 
ache is extraction. When a 
groom is a bad one, he must 
be turned away. 

A. 

Forgive me ! for I really 
feel greatly ashamed that 
you should honour me (lit. 
bring honour) while in this 
state. To be in your com- ^- 




( 9 ) This is a beautiful couplet, from Sady. 

1 I0 ) See the Diminutive Nouns, p. 127. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ^ ) 169 

pany, and shew discontent, 

+v, v. . 

be the cause what it may, 

is, I confess, the extreme of 
ingratitude. But these ser- 
vants are so very mischie- 
vous ! 

B. 

There is no occasion to be i . C i ^ . '. < - 

ashamed at all! We are by 
ourselves: and if you wish 
me to prove still more that 

there is no stranger here, o^ o ,o?o o-o o ^ s 
give me leave to correct a t\-jfr^ L"_^A^ . ^ ..._. \ \_^ ^\ p (_f c $ 
grammatical mistake in an 
expression of yours. 



A. 

You will very much oblige 

me: may your favour be f f( , .,, 

ever increasing! But to ^ W^-j^ tA--\o>$J C\ i 
which of my mistakes are 
you alluding? for I fear that, 
in this state of vexation, I V L '\' - 
may have talked very much " *** 

at random. 

B. 

No; I was not aware of 
more than one very slight 
oversight. 

A. 

Which is it? Be so kind 
as to explain. 

B. 

This only when vou said, 

., TU 
These servants are very 

' T 

mischievous." jj'\ \ 




170 (|V.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

A. 

You say true : .Li I is an 
Adjective (Plural); and Ad- 
jectives in Persian, when 
used in the Plural Number, 
yield a Substantive significa- 
tion; and the meaning of 
.Ijil by itself, is "mischie- 
vous people.'" Therefore, if > . /) ''.r?J= / { r ' 

\\ *N 3 X v & ^ ^S \ ^^^ ^ 

I had said, " These servants CX (* -^ > L^ 

are very^^i, the expres- 
sion would have been cor- 
rect; for in that form the 




.. 

. < 'i v^ 
Adjective would be in the * 

- T T T 0,00? 7 OT 1x O. xx 

Singular Number. But I % \ \ \^ 

have made a greater mis- * ^^ ' " ^ - 
take than this ; and you are 
not aware of it, because you 

, , ., 

had not then arrived (lit. you ^ ^ \jj t _p ^ J 
had not brought honour). 



B. ( - ) 

Do you remember (lit. is 
it in your recollection) what 
it was ? 

A. 0) 

TTxO OxOx 

Yes ; I remember it very & s (Jj(-S C^ ^ *^V? ' 
well. When I was talking ' 
to the other servant re- 
specting that useless groom, 

.oi -. .A , /. v J*^ } 

I said, " I can never confide -> " ~'sS-' ^ \ I -' 

1 . J- 1_ 

in him any more; for he 

1-11 T J >7 

may kill me a horse daily. 

J * 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



V 



B. 

Where is the mistake? 
For my part, (<*^) I do not 
see any fault in this ex- 
pression. 

A. 

Do not you see ^>uJ CJu 
can never be correct ? 

B. 

Why not? Would that 
your horses were always as 
sound as this ! i. e. as this 
phrase is correct ! (a play 

upon the word e^*~>t>)- 

A. 

A Cardinal Number, you *>\ *~* 

observed, is not admissible 

before a Definite Noun; and S^ 

i i s 

(_**! having already the ^ 
of unity at the end of it, is, 
in itself, a Definite Noun. c_J J6/ 

B. ( V ) 

You are now making a 
mistake, undoubtedly; be- 
cause the ,_< of unity con- 'i 

(*"*'< 

veys an indefinite sense, and \T^ s 

an Indefinite Noun can never 'i 2 M -' 

, . x ,. ., . , (^~>OO OJ\JJ< 

be definite (in its meaning). -J' ^ 

i I* -,.-, 

indicates a sinqle or 




^ 
one horse, certainly ; but it 



may be any one horse: 

whereas ^1 uLb implies x 

some one specific or parti- t.*^ C^X-^y tXx-^=X O3 a^ C5V~^' 



(") See Dialogue 2. Conversation on " Horseback," p. 147. 



172 V PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



cularized horse. And you 
know, that if any one should 
kill a /(orse, <Ae horse, in 
that state, would be definite 
and particularized. 

A. 

This is rather a nice point ; 
but you have now made it 
quite clear to me : although 
I had much rather that my 
horses should always re- 
main u^ed, and uncir- 
cumscribed in number, than 
that this AacA: of a groom 
should define and parfzcu- 
larize them. 



B. 

Whoever wants his horse 
for the purpose of riding, 
would be your partner in 
this sentiment. But, since 
we are now upon the sub- 
ject, I wish very much to 

explain to you two or three 

/, 
more points concerning 

Adjective, and Substantive 
9 uafi/!ed fcy ^rfjec- 



( " ) This play, or pun, upon grammatical terms cannot be exactly translated 

into English without the risk of rendering the passage unmeaning : suffice it to 

"< -5 x ^FO, .-"y i x a, < . 
state, that these technical phrases (viz. J.Jss^ , t_s r Jt < t>j J>s-*lJ , ^Cjt< / 

apply both to Grammar and to Horses, in the Persian Language ; and conse- 
quently make good puns. 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. V O 173 

lives, which, on that day, 

the ' lateness of time pre- 

.- t ' * 
vented me from explaining. Ai -..loo \^i 

A. (V) 

You are doing me a great 

kindness ; but if it be no ^J -J ' J 

trouble, and in the like man- 
ner as before you will again 
explain yourself in English, *''"*'*, ' ? ' * *.i '? 'i ' 
it will add to the obligation. -^ **J* L^o- tX^yo OooV/0,3 u \jo 

B. ( V ) 
The.(letter) zaw of 



among sincere friends, is > > -' o* -5 

always without a dot 



An Adjective^ whether Simple or Compound, must always 
be in the Singular Number, whether its Substantive be so or 
not. As to its proper situation with regard to the Substan- 
tive which it qualifies ; when the Noun is Indefinite or 
Definite, but not in apposition, the Adjective must invariably 



follow it, and the final or connecting j; (') be added to the 

O xOy O P 'Is ' IP T x ^ 

Substantive ; as, J-^/x, |j*-^l (-_>}- J^ " A good man fears 

O Is OxO^Tx *Vx Ox 

God "; L^viJU*^ <KAxAfl> ^jC. 4.,-vJ "An Arabian horse is always 

OO? OX3 s** ' ~. , Is 

thin-waisted"; ty -id^t) ^ slu, w*vJ ' f My 6/acA- horse was 

Ox O O x Oy Ox Ox 

in the stable "; jJ;!jJ cJb tLXto-jl^jH^ ^Ij^ " J?rae mew have 

O-v V O oo 

no dread of battle " ; jJl^sU-y ^b^, ^LLy j " Thy affectionate 
friends are present"; &c. &c. But when the Noun is in 
apposition, the Adjective may either precede or follow the 



( IJ ) If the first letter (j) of the word e^v^ " trouble," is not dotted, the 

O x O x 

word will be read ^ -,^-^y , which signifies blessing, or mercy. 



174 (T VI*) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Q 

Substantive; and in either case, instead of the^; ('), the 
descriptive ^ must be added to the Substantive or to the 
Adjective, but generally to that which immediately precedes 
1 1 H ' v 6iD j '''"S ^^sjgjjLjft^- o.,tj ttio 01* LI^^>^*- V O r c ^^%j>-fc) it\> 1 nv 
father is a good man." But when the sentence becomes 
more complicated, the good taste and the judgment of the 
writer or speaker must, in a great measure, guide him in the 
manner of arranging his words ; for then the Adjective may 

1 " - 1 ,1, 

even be expressed after the Verb itself; as, 

1 1>f1 1 1 1 Iff 1 , ' ' < ' , O 

or o*.o, J ._Ji ,lx*o ..jjJLl , or 



or c^^-j^jjj'^-j^fi ^JoJ, all of which expressions 
equally mean, " London is a very large city," and are all 
idiomatic. One rule, however, is generally to be observed ; 
viz. that if the Adjective expresses more than a simple 
abstract quality, such as good or bad, or if it is of Arabic 
extraction, or a compound, it is to be placed after the Sub- 
stantive, whether expressed before or after the Verb : for 

O 1 11 f i,1f ,,, a . . 

instance, you may say in Persian, c^^.^ JoJ/J, or 



^o, or iXJti^-j j^ y jfji , all meaning, "Thy servant 

Q , 

is a bad man"; but if an Arabic Adjective, say j> "wicked," 

be substituted for the Persian jj, you may say 6r*fjj 

i 11, 11 , 11 n^ ? ,1 ' 

^^^iji/" ) r j(fi e^J j* />_? \ but it would not be quite 

idiomatic, except in poetry, to say t, 

Adjective Adverbs, or Adverbs of Quantity, such as, 

<Jj^, "much," "very," &c. &c., brought to increase the 
force of an Adjective, may be placed immediately before 
(never after) the Adjective, and the second Noun of the appo- 
sition may also intervene between them ; as, .U* 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Vf> ) 



O O OOP xxOxO O Ox O O OP O O 



or *^M*Mf- c^ttve^U^j jJdXil, or t-_>ji. AA&- 

O OP O Ox OO x Ox Ox O 

, or (>ji- 1 _ 5 ^ i - e^MKU^Uw, jJJXJl : all of these expres- 
sions equally mean, " England is a very good kingdom/' or, 
" a very fine country." 

With regard to the Cardinal Numbers, the Nouns to 
which they are joined (whether they be with, or without an 
Adjective) must always be in the Singular Number ; as, 

OO Ox X O x 

" a thousand men (literally, man)," or ^j\j^ " one 



OxO P x Ox 

thousand man"; jJuuA-e, or Joaj3^, "one hundred 



sheep," &c. &c. ; but not ^b,*, or J*&MM. The same also 

Ox X O O O 

when the Noun is with an Adjective; as, . J J J > e>,*uuo 

" XV x s* "* " 

O O P O O OxOP P xO 

" twenty brave maw " ; Ljj&yUk> L_-vJji>j j-a> I " five hundred 
and two very good Aorse " ; &c. &c. Respecting the order in 
which the numbers should be arranged, the greatest number is 
expressed first, and the rest following in the same order ; as, 
AJhiUwtS &ui) Ixjjjb iXAtoj> ikjb^lya- slsfb* ci-xoioiO two hundred 
and fifty-four thousand seven hundred and eighty-three 
sheep." There is one exception to this rule however ; 
namely, that from eleven to nineteen the smaller number is 
always expressed first : and from twenty to forty-nine, the 
smaller number may be expressed first ; but only in counting 
or telling, and never in conversation or writing. For instance, 

OOP O O x O OOx 

you may tell e^uxjjJ, ^^1^, J^s-^j, &c. &c., instead of 

f f O O x OOx ? 

counting y>jo-".. >, ^L^-j ( _^ , Aj^J^js-, i.e. twenty -two, 
thirty-four, and forty-five ; though the latter is the best 
mode of expressing these numbers. But there is no choice 
from eleven to nineteen*. 



* See the Numerals, pp. 10, 11. 



176 (Ivl) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

A Definite Noun may be used in the Plural, to answer to 
the Cardinal Number; but it must be in a complete sen- 
tence, when the Plural Noun is expressed first, then the 

OTxTO - > O O^ 

Cardinal Number, and lastly the Verb ; as, jJ^j^j J\^ 

DxO^ O x o f o Ox 

"f/je ?ne were two thousand"; jJ^Lg^- jlu^LgjuJ "The 
black horses were four"; &c. &c. 

In concluding this subject, however, let me assure you, 
that if you will only be a little careful in the course of your 
reading, you will discover more rules with regard to the 
Persian Syntax, and understand them even much better, than 
any Grammarian could explain them to you by his isolated 
examples or quotations. Besides having access to books, 
you now possess another advantage over those foreigners 
who study a language by themselves, or far from where it is 
spoken. You are now at present in Persia, and in constant 
intercourse with the natives : the best Grammar for you, 
therefore, is to attend to the conversations and idioms of 
the educated classes of the people, with whom you are so 
frequently in communication, and may ask them any ques- 
tions you may think proper. 



DIALOGUE V. 
A- (\) 

To-day, the air is very 

warm. ' 



B. t - 

Ox^Ox / O T jf 9 O 

I wonder that you should \>S\\\+2j \&-> _ju_L.X/o 
complain of the heat ! ' 



A. m 

Why ? Perhaps you sup- 
posed that I had no bodily 
feeling ? *2j tX) ,_ 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. w ) 177 



E 

" } x O <> 1 - .' 

Not so : but you having **J*J* ^ 
said that you had resided 
ten years in India, and had 
been staying chiefly in Ben- 
gal and the climate of In- 
dia. especially Bengal, being 
much warmer than Persia, 
and to-day also not being a 
particularly hot day I was 
surprised when you com- ' - ' i ^ ^ 

^ ** 




plained of the heat ! * f**J*-* 



A. 

Notwithstanding these 
good reasons why such should 
not be the case, I feel a \3 ^j> <J1> y L^. 
strange heat all over my 
body; and, moreover, I have 
a great thirst upon me, and 

L-V-^^^X J * 

my head also aches. * 



B. (V) 

God grant that you may \J J J^ ) ^^ ^\ jj JJ 
have no fever ! Let me feel 

9 ^ *5 x xxO^ x OOOx 

(/i<. see) your pulse. Do not ^ a j> 6 .% * tLJoJ ^^d ,jy-lJ 
be alarmed: you have a ~ 
slight fever; take care (of 
yourself) : please God, it will 
soon be removed. 



* See the Diminutive Particles, pp. 127129. 
2 A 



178 (! VA ) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



I fear I may have caught 
cold : there is abad taste in 
my mouth ; and I feel a shi- 
vering in my back and side. 

B. 



~~ >-*--*> 



, ,,, , y 4 , 



' - 



, . 
" 



( 



There is no doubt you 
have caught cold : you must 
abstain from fruit altoge- 
ther. At this season, fever 
and ague are very prevalent 
(lit. has a great prevalence) 
in Persia. People, in these 
warm nights, sleep mostly 
on the tops of their houses ; 
and it sometimes happens, 
that in the course of the 
night a slight cold may have 
settled on a person, and he 
may not be aware of it : and, 
in the earlier part of the 
day, people incautiously eat 
fruit : and most of the agues 
and fevers, and other mala- \ f ^\ J\ 
dies which prevail at this 
season, arise from these ' . J 2 \ . .\.\ 

>N-*y c->\4^ (j^/ 




i : i 

isl-xixa^ (_J '. 

X X 

>s ? f -, 

Lf-^l^A-J^yi? 



sources. 



A. 

You say true : last night, 
about two or three hours 
past midnight, I woke, and 
felt very much chilled. I 
found (saw) the night-cap 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



179 



" 5 ' > ' 



had fallen off my head, and '*" ' '! V \-i \ 

O., ~&t^_3lsi.. 3_) 55UJ/ r- > V 

the quilt even was not over p JJ f -J J \J -^ 

me ; and I sneezed also twice ^s ', ' I >! ' \ ' ; 1 

j<*JOOjUJa*& 

or thrice: perhaps that may x r -^ \ 

have been the commence- ' i "\~\ ' \/ 

/..I \\ /.we JS 
~ 



<X /.. /.we i 

ment of my cold. *-> -J *- r ~ -^ - , 



B. ( 

Notwithstanding these "" .' ' '- 

j .J 
several warnings, I still fear ^^ 

you may not have abstained ?\ s ~ "".. . 1\ \ !V 

jl/wiJO C? ^^ / e OiVfi. j\W 

from your usual custom of 
eating fruit before breakfast. 



A. 

Why conceal it from you ? 
The truth of the matter is, 
that this morning the gar- 
dener of the English Envoy 
brought me several baskets 
of fresh ripe fruits. With- 
out exaggeration, I had 
never seen grapes, figs, and 
melons, in such a state of 
perfection and delicacy. 
Moreover, with what neat- & 
ness and elegance had that 
tasteful gardener arranged 
them, mixed with roses and 
jessamines, in those baskets 
of green myrtle ! At all 
events, I enjoyed the plea- 
sure of partaking of those 
forbidden fruits: now I must 
pay the penalty of my in- 
discretion. 



'\ Q ' '. 
/.0\ 3 ^ 5 \J 
^" X* -^ ' 




180 A ) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



B. 

You must not alone pay 
the whole of the penalty: 
since the Envoy's gardener 
has tempted you to eat the 
fruit, justice requires that 
the Envoy's doctor should 
pay a part of the penalty, in 
the shape of medicine and 
attendance. I have some 
business in the neighbour- 
hood of the Ambassador's 
house ; and, as I am passing 
that way, I will see the En- 
glish doctor myself, and send 
him to see you directly. 

A. 

May your affection never 
diminish! But there is no 
necessity for you to take 
the trouble (lit. that you 
should take the trouble) : I 
can write to the doctor my- 
self, and beg him to come. 

B. 

It is no trouble at all ! I 
must pass that way : what 
difference will it make, if I 
were to see the doctor for 
two or three minutes ? 
Moreover, when I see him, 
I can explain your case to 
him ; and he perhaps, form- 
ing some judgment of it by 



^ ... 

-c ^SjjsZ. >jW& ^s: .. I (jV^V ci^ 




A^j -Sj^ V^i 




txA.|O X==> *J 



' -- xx 

x \ \ . \ . \ . 

J CJ J ' 




x s s x 

t^lJ jXatJ i xx.x. J U--x^. 

, , ., , , , -, >, 

- ^ 5 *'^ -e ' 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. A I) 181 



my statement, should any 
medicine be necessary, he 
can at once bring it with 
him; and in this manner the ^ 
matter may be expedited. 

A. 

I am much obliged to you ! 
Although we say, in English, 
"I would do as much for 
you ;" yet I hope to requite 
you, for these affectionate 
offices, at your wedding, and 
not in your illness ! 

B. 

May it please God to re- 
store you to health first ! 
Now I will leave you quiet : .* 
and do you repose a little, 
until the doctor comes. 

A. 

I have a great thirst upon 
me ; and am afraid of drink- 
ing cold water, lest it should 
do me harm. 




1 ^ r>' 

(') The Verb ^jf- does not always signify "To eat" in Persian. It sig- 



_ 
nifies also "To drink"; as, ^^s-t-j! "To drink water"; ^j^j^ "To 

TV O? Ox 

drink wine"; &c. &c. It means also " To suffer," and " To feel "; as, 



"To suffer grief"; ^tf- t "To feel regret." In fact, (.jii;^, in 
Persian, corresponds more with the English Verb " To take," than any other 
Verb ; for they say in English, " To take pains," " To take trouble," " To take 

Ox O ? 

dinner," " To take wine," &c. &c. ; for all of which ^j^- may be used in Persian. 



182 ( I A T ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



B. 

I will tell the cook to 
make some barley-water for 
you: that will quench (your) 
thirst. 

A. 

May your kindness and 

affection increase ! 

B. 

Boys ! Boys ! ! No one 
answers ! (ftV. gives an an- 
swer.) They are all dead! 
-Boys!!! ' 



SERVANT. 

O T x 

Sir ! yes Sir ! ! _^l-tf ,Jj 




A. 

You see, at last, that I 
am ill! why do you, all of 
you, vanish together ? For 

God's sake, let one of YOU, at 

,. j- _^^ ,.,_x_=3. t. 
least, be always near at hand, 

to answer when I call! It 
is yowr special duty always 
to be in the coffee-room: 
where had you gone ? 




( 2 ) An ante-room leading into the audience-chamber, where the coffee, &c. 
> ')^ 
^Liii " ghalyaun," are prepared, and handed in to the guests. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( \ A O 1 83 



SERVANT. 
I was gone to the kitchen, 
to fetch the barley-water, 
which the cook had pre- 
pared for you. 



A. (V) 

Mind you well, that to- r # ''"K V' ' ' 

vl _x*j j . ~\ &S tx^b c 

day, excepting the doctor, "* * ' 



and the gentleman who just .... j-~ > * A<g ~ i t_-t-^\^^ L-^9 > .^^ 

>> x r ~ ^ p- 

went out, whoever else may T ^ o o . 

call (come), you must say 

that I am not well, and can- . - -\ 

^I^XJw^) I, 

not see any body ! Dost 
thou understand, or not ? 



SERVANT. 
Yes, Sir ; very well. 




A. (')) 

Now, bring (me) some ' ' 



. .je , 
barley-water. Ah! this is - -'^" 

too hot ; I cannot drink it. 3 ' 



SERVANT. 

It is not (a) long (time) 
since it has been taken off 
the fire; and it is not yet <XiJ.2 1 
cooled. 




( 3 ) See Note 1. Dialogue 5. 



184 (I A > C ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

A. 

Go, and pour it all into a 
glass (bottle) ; and put the 
bottle into ice, that it may 
cool the sooner. I am very 
thirsty ! But do not bring it 
till I ask for it : I may be 
asleep, and will not have 
any one disturb me. 

(Two Servants talk.) 

1st SERVANT. 

What is the matter with 
master to-day ? 

2d SERVANT. 

What do I know? He 
says he is ill. 

1st SERVANT. 

If he is ill, he is ill : if he _Sl LL 
is not ill, he is not ill: but t , t 

you, who go in and come out = J 
so often, if you be not an ass, ^$?\ 
must, at all events, know 
one thing or the other. 



( 4 ) The reader will here again observe the difference of idiom between the 

T x Ox x 

Persian and English. In the former, the Negative form ,lx fP>\f& ^ " S long 
as I shall not ask for it, do not bring it," is strictly idiomatic. In English, it is 
the reverse : " Until I do ask for it, do not bring it." 

( 5 ) See Note 1. Dialogue 4. 

( 6 ) See Notes 2 and 4. Dialogue 3. 

( 7 ) See Note 5. Dialogue 4. 





PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Afi ) 185 

2d SERVANT. 

If you ask me, I tell you, 
that these Englishmen, so 
long as they possess a pulse ^ 
and a watch, they are never 
in health. With one hand, 
He holds his watch; and with 
the other, feeling his pulse 
thus. He looks at this a lit- 
tle, and counts something to As. ^ * > Jl5\-V"^ iX_J 

- r ^ V ~~ ^^ v ~ ^" " J 

himself; and all at once ex- 
claims, "Alas! it is ninety! 

it is ninety-five ! O dear, \i "*'\ 

~)\) 
it is a hundred ! ! ! Woe is 

me ! I am ill ! Bring the 
doctor ! Prepare some me- 
dicine! Make some bar- 
ley-water ! Let no one 
speak ! Let no one knock y 
at the door ! I cannot see 
any one !" and I know not 
what ! But, thank God ! he 
is now asleep. Would that, 
before his waking, his watch 
may stop! then all would 
be right. 

1st SERVANT. 

You talk a great deal 
of nonsense ! Methinks 




( s ) For this and the following exclamations, see the Interjections, pp 117 19. 

2B 



186 (i A 1) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

O O^ x O O O x^. Ox O.x O 

you have lost your wits. If _3jo A^o ^.-sU tS 5 *Q S\ 

the man were not really ill, 

\ ' \ " '\ 
do you think the doctor was ' 'J^- .P** <_ 

x ^ 

a fool, like yourself, to take ooo ?o,oxox 

/ i *- ^ i*^ \*f^ / . 1 ^' * 3 a-) Q ^* | ^ lj 

so much blood from him for UTiT^ ^-^ -^ L? 

no purpose ? .^ J^ ^\J ' 

2d SERVANT. 

After all, he (the doctor) 
is an Englishman too, and 
has a watch also. What 
did he do, when he came ? 
First of all, he pulled out his 

watch, and, like Master him- - m - - ^ 

, LJJJ==, JLx~j t>_J / i.3tLL_owU> 
self, held it in one hand, and J *~> ~ ^T ^^ 

with the other hand he felt \ Q i 

Ul CSkUiS /COJ 

the Master's pulse, and in ^ 

^ ^ 1 P o O .. 

the same manner he began 
counting: then he said some- 
thing to Master, and Master 
put out his tongue. As soon 
as he looked at Master's 
tongue, he fumbled with his 
hand in his pocket and pulled 

out his lancet: and cried 

' M^1X.X. 







out, "Boys! bring the jug 
and basin !" You know the 
rest (lit. the rest of it is 
known), L e. he bled him. ^^^eyj^ ( r~ f z 

(I ) 
1st SERVANT. ^ , 00 

Do you mean to say that (_^ii^. *^ ^ 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



AV ) 187 



the doctor himself bled 
Master, and did not send 
for a barber ? ! 

2d SERVANT. 

Barber! They are their 
own barbers. Have you 

- 

ever seen an Englishman ' 
who could not shave him- 
self? Their doctors, also, ^> & 
both bleed and extract teeth. 
Listen ! somebody knocks 
at the door. -- Yes, yes! 
Coming ! 



* / J. , I f 

L^Sy > >> 





A MESSENGER. 
I have brought a note for 
the Gentleman ; and want 
an answer to it. 



^ ^^ 





*1 2! ! 



.r 






f*)*** u^?T*L? 



SERVANT. 

Master is not well, and J 
is asleep: I cannot iust now 
give him the note. But, 
hark! I hear him cough. 
I think he is awake (or 
has awoke). Give me the 
note ! 

A. 

Boys! Bring me some 
water to drink !-What is 
the time ? Bring candles, 
that I may see ! 




(\) 



' 0/3 



188 (I AA ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SERVANT. 
Yes, Sir. We are com- , \ , 

,. __)!, >\JJ*\ M _ t\ -C' \__rL "^ V _'lf i 1_J 

ing. Make haste [to a/eJ- *~^ ' ^ 




, and light these 
candles ! or he will be angry 
again. 3i~L.~-c 

' 



Another Servant. 

x O O x > O x O ^ 

Your prayer has been i,"^ p\..i L"_I . . lt ^v _.* t _ A^y .^ ^ L~ 
granted ! Master's watch 
is topped. Do you not see, 
he asks, "What is the time?" 



SERVANT. 

^ x T O x O ^^ O O xx 

Do not talk nonsense ! nr+* X&j \ \-ftJUtfA JC OO A. 

Give me the candles ! 

Sir! a person has brought 
this note for you, and wishes 
for an answer to it 

(U 

A. (reads.) , x , ,, 



My Dear Friend ! 

Although it is unkind to 

leave a valued friend alone u^J\A.i-Jwi-S (y^ * *f 
when he is ill ; and justice 
itself, under such circum- 



( 9 ) I have not been strictly literal in translating some parts of this epistle ; 
because, in the vain attempt to Anglify the untranslatable phrases of Persian 
courtesy, the English becomes so bad, I may even say so ridiculous, as to de- 
grade, rather than elucidate, the peculiar phraseology of the original. The 
learner, if he has been a learner at all, by the time he comes to this part of the 
Grammar, must see, and be able to understand, the difference of the idiom and 
grammatical construction of the two languages, in this, as well as in many other 
similar instances, in these Dialogues. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



( I A 1 ) 1 89 



stances, does not reckon any 
excuse sufficient for absence. 
Nevertheless, on account of 
an important and necessary 
business, the transaction of 
which is indispensable, I fear 
I may not be able to have 
the honour of waiting on you 
until to-morrow morning; 
unless (which God forbid!) 
your indisposition should be 
so great as to make you think 
my presence necessary: in 
that case, to attend upon you 
will, of course, become the 
most urgent of all important 
affairs. I pray that the 
Almighty Giver of all gifts, 
in His infinite mercy, may 
grant you a speedy cure! 
Your very sincere friend, B. 

A. 

There is no necessity 
to write an answer. Send 

OB 9 O S)+ T 

my compliments, and say, xVLv ^ jj y 
" Thank God ! I feel much 
better to night. The doc- 
tor has visited me twice; 
and, after bleeding me, he 
sent me some medicine : his 
remedies have proved of 
great benefit ; and I am in 
hopes that by to-morrow, 




^ <- ' i - ' i i 
3 .3 ^)1 .JJ , V-oW C-vcO 
-^ ^ ^ , 



-aa. 



JO 




' - 



j J\ b \ifljj\ u-ub\j 
ItX) V^ic <_g\ Q _*. ^^. t_^- 




190(11.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ox "> x t x 

God willing ! no illness will &\j &J\-+J 

remain." As soon as you ,, x 

have sent this message, Sr 
bring me some tea. 

SERVANT. 

Very well, Sir. Do not 
you wish for something to 
eat with (your) tea ? 

A. 

No ; I want nothing (more). 
But mind, and remember, 
before going to rest to-night, 
to bring me some warm 
water, that I may bathe my 
feet ; and, that an hour after 
tea is the time. 



DIALOGUE VI. 
B. 

O, my thornless rose ! 
O, my "Companion of the 
cave ! " peace be upon you ! 
"May thy person never be 
a supplicant before the self- 
sufficiency of the doctors ! 

May thydelicate framenever ... ^- .j 

be afflicted with sickness !" -* ^ 





(') Mohammed, during his flight, when closely pursued by his enemies, was 
obliged for a time to conceal himself in a cave, wherein none of his followers 

TV * 

was with him, excepting Job! "Abababr" (afterwards the first Khalif); and 
hence he obtained the appellation of ili/lj " The Companion of the cave." It is 
now used occasionally, in Persian, to signify a very sincere and intimate friend. 
The couplet is by Hafiz. 

* See Optative Mood, p. 67. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAB. 0^0 191 



I trust that the disinter- 
ested prayers of your sin- 
cere friends have been heard 
in your behalf, and that you -J J 

are now completely free 
from indisposition ! 

A. 

Thanks be to God! I have 
no illness to-day. My fever 
has left me (lit. is broken 
off) ; my headache is com- 
pletely gone ; and my appe- 
tite is also very good : what 
more dost thou want ? But 
the truth is, that so long as 
a person does not suffer ill- 
ness, he does not know the 
value of health. How much 
it behoves me now to praise 
God, who has bestowed on 
me the blessing of health ! 
but when I compare my state 
of yesterday with that of 
to-day, I acknowledge that 
it is impossible for me to 
thank God as I ought. 

B. 

It is incumbent upon us 
every moment to thank God; 
for there is no instant that 
we are free from the exer- 
cise of His goodness. The 
divine bounty is like water, 
and we like fish ; we cannot 
exist a moment without it. 




192 (II f) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

It is from our ingratitude 
and neglect that we thank 
God only from time to time 
for some particular bounty 
of His ; otherwise, His uni- 
versal grace every moment 
demands renewed thanks. 
Dost thou not recollect the 
passage in Sady ? 

A. 

No: to what passage do 
you allude ? 

B. 

In the preface of his in- 
comparable (work) " Guli- 
stan," On the praise of the 
Almighty Creator, he says, 
"Every breath, when in- (ji^L^ iX :>'. Ho ^3 s 




haled, is a prolonger of life ; 
and when exhaled, a reviver 
of nature : so that in every 
single respiration there ex- 
ists two bounties of God ; 
and for every bounty, a sepa- 
rate thanksgiving becomes 

due. Whose power and .,-.-,,. . . 

whose language is sufficient 
to fulfil the duty of grati- 
tude to Him ? !" 



in Persian, means "hand," as well as "power." The English 
reader need not be reminded of the same in his own language. But the passage 
may also be translated thus : " What can the hand or tongue express sufficiently, 
to perform the requisite duty of gratitude?" 



PERSIAN GEAMMAR. 



('I 1 ") 193 




x s s , 

oJ t>O\O JjljO 




_ 

$ ^ tX)ijJwc 



A. 

The chief beauty of these 
passages is in the truths 
which they express, although 
the expressions [themselves] 
are also quite perfect in 
point of eloquence. 

B. 

What can be more beau- 
tiful than truth 9 My belief 
is, that man ought not to be 
called " the lord of the crea- 
tion" merely because of the 
power of speech; but rather 
on this account, that he can 
speak truth. 

A. 

You speak truth ; there- 
fore you are the lord of the , ,,, ,^, ^, -3 o? 
creation. But, My Lord of oVSj^sS ^-*jt*} ^ 

the Creation, this is a very Q ..' ^ ^ .-. , "> 

/^XA^: s \ ^jtx? ,u 

antiquated truth. Should -^ I 

there be any new truths in \ -^ <_>. _*A_> u-R_J . ^ JaW .i 

your noble thoughts, I shall 

be much delighted to hear it. 

B. 

Do you believe, then, that 

truth also, like the customs ^ , -> , f 

and fashions of nations, has (jj-*^-^? LSJ t p 

'-' 

its novelty and antiquity? '"." ^- 

that to-day, <Ai* coZowr is r "^-' -^ " -*2^ x J 

f s Ox x^ O^OOO ^n o . 

liked ; and to-morrow, *Aa< ? (A^ O> AA ^X) ^ JL-\ a \ \ ^J 

* -^ x x^ 

2 C 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



this year, this is thefashio- 
nafcfe cut of a coat ; and this 
teas last years, and is un- 
fashionable; and so on? 
However, if such really be 
your notion, I hope that you 
will stop at this limit, and 
will not carry the analogy 
to its full extent ! For as, 
in the one case, you may say, 
for instance, " This is an old 
coat, or its colour is un- 
fashionable" or, The cut of \ ^ ' 
these breeches is vulgar, and 
I am ashamed to wear them;" 
in the other case you will 
be obliged also to say, " This 

truth is very antiquated, and 

, 
every body knows it; and 

is now become very vulgar, j\ 
and I am ashamed to discuss ' 
it ;" and so forth. 



I like your diction better 
than your logic; for in that, 
there is much eloquence; but 
in this, a great deal of fal- 
lacy. Who in this world, ex- 
cepting yourself, could per- 
vert my simple remark in 
so hideous a manner ? 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



195 



B. 

O x O x T ^">x 

Where is the fallacy ? Be ...UJ S 2 yJ <, 
so kind as to point it out. 



(V") 



A. 

I said, "This truth is 
antiquated," meaning, long 
established;'" but you inter- 
preted it in the sense of 
"old, and worn out" which 
was not my meaning. By 

O Ox 

*j>jJ>, I meant "ancient" as 

I" o 

opposed to djiiU*. "casual" 

The word, as it is employed 
in logic, signifies " eternal" 
and not " worn out." More- 
over, .pjji is one of the at- 
tributes of the Deity, mean- 
ing " without beginning, and 
without end." 

B. 

There is no doubt that 
you have proved (the ex- 
istence of) a fallacy ; but, I 
fear, more in your own state- 
ment than in my saying. 
You must surely know, that 
it often happens that a word 
has been employed in a 
science, or idiomatically, to 
express a particular mean- 
ing; but, in common con- 
versation, it has a more ex- 
tensive signification, which, 
for the most part, is re- 
stricted by the context. You 
did not merely say, " This is 



cn 

00,0 x > ^ o o 
d* ... JtX9 C-~j u ^J I 



f t, ,, ->,,_, , , o 
oo^ Xx^So \y\ Vtfi jlj -O (^ 



O OO.'T 



oj j 

I 



A * 



* ' *\ ^gi 



. 



s x .' x 

OliLo '.^ , J^ ^\> */\'IL" i. H^J / j-.^vt 

^/ C-x " [ " _J ^ ^^ ^x 

,"-,? -> , ,o, >-, ~ 
j\ . .\,Xxj\ ^ ( J^ C^ 1^ 

< VO 



C!A-~JO t^X 

, o 
-MJ ow 



<xJ\OO 




. 1^ 

** -^ ' -^ *rr x 



"> ' ^ ' .; r '' \ f V Z ' 
i .0>s3> rfl J '\ v XC-\ 3 t 



' 



196 (111) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



> 



an antiquated truth;" but 
you added, "Should there 
be any new truth," &c. &c. *_J ,.* 
It is therefore quite clear, Q 
from these contexts, that (^fr |r^ D~^ _j i^J~~i- ^J^^J 
you used the word +ite (old), 
as opposed to J (fresh), and 
not as opposed to ^_>t)U- 
(casual) and your meaning, 
in using the word "anti- 
quated," could only have been 
" old and common," and not 
"eternal." Moreover, you 
expressed yourself ironically 
at my defective explanation, 
and shewed some signs of 
weariness; and these, too, are 
additional proofs that you 
used the word "antiquated" 
in its worst sense. 



A 

- ti " 

Do you not know, that I 
am an Englishman, and that 
Persian is not my native 
tongue? What wonder is 
it, if I should have employed 
a word rather out of its 
proper place ? 

B. 

Although your excuse is 
rery Za?7ie ; yet, as you have 

so recently (lit. newly) risen 
. . / ... 

from sickness, I will not, for 

old friendship's sake, be too 
hard upon you. 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

A. (\) 

May your affection ever ' M . 
increase! But, with all this 
kindness and consideration, ''1- 
I still see that you do not *j b j 
quite forget the "new" and 
the " old." 



197 



B. V> 

Q "> T O x 9 *) 

This is only to shew you, ]b\jd\ sS *jV^J \^O JO 

x I ^^ * + 

how words, according to idi- 
oms and contexts, give va- 
rious significations. 

But now let us change the 
subject: for, as you say in 
English, " This is rather too 
much of a good thing," we 
say in Persian, "Eating too 
much of sweetmeats pro- 
duces heartburn." 




Now, I well remember, U**IJA) 
that, two or three days ago, 
I settled with a dealer that 
he should bring several good 
horses, in order that I might 
see them, and, if I approved 
of any, might make a pur- 

chase. He came yesterday ; X , 

but I was not very well, and -j~* " ^^** * **' Owo ' 

told him to come another 
time. If you have a mind, 



( 3 ) See Note 4. Dialogue IV. 



198 (H A ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



,- x- ^ ,,/* ^ 

I will send a man, to desire xy^ \ \j x^-^ JLri.fi** +3\ ^ Oo 
him to come to - morrow -, -, ? <-TX'XOXX ? , > 



morning; and, if you happen 
not to have any other en- 
easement, have the kindness 

x x x X . 

to come here, that we may ubb UV^Xs\ U OO.A.O ( SJ -tJ\aaJ\ 

l > -v*> x "> 

see the horses together. T>_ o o 



B. f (^) 

Very well! -I have an ''u JJLJ^W liJ^JjjLX 
engagement now, and shall \' 
take my leave (lit. become 
permitted) ; but to-morrow 
morning, I will be here 
again. 



O'T" Ox 



A. 

God be with you ! To- 
morrow morning, I shall ex- 
pect you. 



DIALOGUE VII. 

A. (U 

o , -- o X 0^ O')x x<x Ox'> -- x O x 

I am very much pleased oo\ .^o ,*~^*- 13^^-?4^ ^." > " i ' c) Jj L/ 
with that bay horse. What 
say you? 

R ( V) 

Ox -3 0x^,0^ -- ^ ' . *' 

It is a fine horse: but I J^J \)i^jf (J\ (J* ^ C!A > 
like that chesnut better :it o > 



, t _ s j^-J,.j-JU<AXs- ,tX>--J , <c 

possesses several very good ^7 J " ',, , v I * Sr 

Tx 

marks. ^ U 

A. C\) 

It is true; but, to my V 
taste, it is rather too small. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



^ ) 199 



If that horse had been half 
a hand taller, he would have 
been worth any sum you 
might mention. 



\ t~~ \ 

' O'jT C 



r 5 



,. ^ 



DEALER. 

Sir, a thorough-bred Arab 
horse seldom happens to be 
taller than this. By your 
own head ! in the stable of 
the prince even, a better 
horse than this cannot be 
found ! But what need is 
there for me to describe it ? , ^ 
You (as heaven has willed) &S&iJi 
yourself understand horses _ 
very well; and your friend *& 
himself also is a perfect 
judge of a horse. 

A. 

You say that "an Arab 
horse seldom happens to be 
taller than this." Is not 
that bay an Arab ? 



DEALER. 

That bay horse, also, is 
worthy of being mounted by 
the king. It is of mixed 
blood (/if. is of two veins) 
the Arab and the Turko- 
man ; but it has more of the 
Arab blood. 







<j\Jb\ J ool) 




( n 



L? 



( Jb) 




(') A form of adjuration common among the Persians. 



200 (I*..) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

B. 

What do you think (say) ^^ ^ 
of that piebald ? See what 1 
a beautiful head and neck 
he has ! 

A. 

In respect of shape, he 
does not appear to be a bad . . 
horse, though his chest is W <-^ 
rather narrow : but, I do 
not know why, I never fancy 
a piebald horse, however 
good his blood may be (lit. 
good-veined). 

B. 

That is another thing. 
But if a horse be of good 
blood, and [possess] good 
marks, I seldom look at his ''< > ' i *. ' ~ > 

+M^X> 8\>J .** 

colour. \ 

A. ^ I o Ox O , 

At all events, out of these ..\^A i ^.^\ \j *j ,.y\ \\ /.wo 

six horses, I approve only of o ,,'->,, > 

that bay and that chesnut. C^? xt-\Ju^.^ ,^c 




o . 



B. ( V ) 

T-v J-J.T- OxOOxxOxOOxx OxO * 

Do you not admire that _ \.' t ... t '> \ /v_L*. \ \ 

dun -coloured horse? I 
very much wonder ! See 
how handsome he is ! In 
point of beauty and marks, 
that horse, in my opinion, 
is quite perfect. Short 
back broad shoulders 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. C**') 201 



\' i! I ' s '. 
open chest ; slender waist ; yj^ CJu AJ (\\.~t *-^~* ; X 

wide between the thighs; ' ' 



' 







clean and straight legs ; ex- ( 
pansive forehead; dark-grey 
eyes; taper ears; handsome 
head and neck; white teeth; 
elegant form; graceful ac- < 

tions; altogether (literally, * " 

TI , . &4*dwW^./ vi. A 

all having grown upon each J L.O ~ 

other), there is not a single > I li ' *J i . !!*' " ' ' ** 

^>~* ...... .y ( i^ ( ..vjL>^g? ja 

good mark which this horse ' - vL 

does not possess. v\ ^jj 

A. (\) 

Ia m) however >m uch m ore 

pleased with the other two ; 

and, if their owner is in- 

clined to treat with me (7i<. 



have an intention to do &^=> ..\OOul^a 
business), I have no objec- 
tion to purchase both. ^J 

DEALER. ( U*** ) 

Let your mind be easy on jJ^X^g oLLb Jr cLob I V* \ 
that account, Sir : my busi- ^ '^J 

ness is, to sell horses; and 
I have no doubt that a 
better purchaser than your- 
self cannot be found. Why, 
then, should not our busi- 
ness be done ? 



i- x ^OO^OO*_^ 

For one important reason ; j?i X^C.*. Wl .xA (J^J 

x 



See Note 1. Dialogue IV. 
2D 



202 (P.f) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

and that is, if you should \d ! ' 

/ / 
osA: <oo mwc/i for them : 

then it may become difficult 
for us to proceed. 

DEALER. 

God grant you happiness, &_a>. ^ L. 
Sir! What words are these 
which you are pleased to 
utter? I would never ask 
too high a price from you. 
Every body knows me ; and 

all know, that no merchant -,, , , , , ,, x, 

can sell horses cheaper than ^J^^ V^ 3 irfjj CTj^ S6f 

ir 



A. 

That must be tried. 
Well ! say now, How much 
do you want for that bay 
horse ? Tell me the lowest 
(lit. the final) price of it, 
that the business may be 
shortened. 

DEALER. 

The very lowest price of 
that bay horse is two hun- 
dred and thirty tumans; and 
the price of the chesnut 
horse, two hundred and 
twenty tumans ; or, the two 
together, four hundred and 
fifty tumans. 




(') Adjectives and Adverbs are often thus repeated in Persian, for the sake of 
emphasis. 

( 4 ) A gold coin, the highest in circulation in Persia, worth about ten shillings 
English money. It is a Turkish word. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(I* 203 



A. 

Did I not say, that "if 
you should ask too much, 
our bargain would not pro- 
ceed?" Four hundred and 
fifty tumans is a great deal 
too much ! 



(V) 



>; 
i_M" 



DEALER. 

By your own head, they 
are very cheap ! If I were 
to send those two horses 
to Bushire, your own mer- 
chants would give them no 
respite 5 , and, at the lowest, 
they would give six hun- ouufctXx ( . 
dred tumans for them. From 
here to Bushire, the ex- 
penses of two horses and a 
groom would not even be 
ten tumans. But at pre- 
sent I have occasion for 
money, and cannot wait. 
You yourself are a very 
good judge of horses, and 
your friend is also perfect 
in this respect : reflect, both 
of you, and say whether 
these horses are cheap, at 
the price I asked, or not ? ! 



A. 

^ 

Will you consent to what- (^\5ow J U.JJ tXJ 
ever this gentleman may , ' -> 
say? I will be satisfied 



o o, 0,0 o 7 

j . \ A.X J &_i 
' 








( ) The meaning of this passage is, that " your English merchants would 
eagerly purchase the horses," i. e. suffer no time to be lost in securing them. 



204 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



with whatever price he shall ^ 
fix. Let him be the arbiter 
between us. 




Though I do not believe 
that he would, out of friend- 
ship for you, propose what 
is unfair (lit. transgress jus- 
tice) ; yet, since this is not 
the proper way of selling 
and purchasing, I cannot 
positively engage to take 
whatever he may mention : 
but still, there is no objec- 
tion to his stating what he 
thinks fair. Perhaps I shall 
be satisfied. 

B. 

If you ask me, I say at 
once, that four hundred tu- 
mans is a fair price for the 

two horses. Let one give, ' ' 5* "' (" ' 
and the other take ; and so '-'. - 

let the bargain be closed. 
I have not a single word 
more to say. 

A. (1) 

I, likewise, since I re- ' "" ' 

ferred [the matter] to you, 
have no more to say ; and 
am willing to pay the four 



PEKSIAN GRAMMAR. (f.o)205 



hundred tumans. Let him 
take it, if he chooses: other- 
wise, he knows best. 




Four hundred tumans are 
too little, Sir ; but, as I re- ,,/,, 
presented to you, that having 
great occasion for money, I 
must sell the horses ; there 
is no help. 

A. 

Very good! now all is 
right. Tell me, What do 
you wish money, or a bill 
of exchange? To me it 
makes no difference. 

DEALER. 

OO Ox QX^O o x OxO x ^^ x 

If you will have the kind- (Xn&JAjftjJ ^iX? tN^^* i r 'Ll' -*- 5^ 
ness to give me a bill of '' 

exchange, payable to my 
partner at Bombay, I shall 
be very thankful to you. 



A 

A. 

Certainly; there is no 
objection. If it would not 
be too much trouble, come 
to-morrow morning, or send 
some person : the bill shall 
be ready. 




206 ( r . 1 ) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



DEALER. 

May your kindness never 
be less ! I will wait on you 
myself. 

A. 

See, in order to buy a 
couple of horses, what waste 
of breath is necessary. As 
for me, I am really fatigued ; 
and if I, who have pur- 
chased two such good horses, 
and anticipate so much plea- 
sure in riding them, say so, 
what must you say, who 
have had nothing else, ex- . ^ IfelCi 
cepting the trouble of talk- J^ 



B. 

You make a mistake ! 
My pleasure, in having done 
you a service, is greater by 
many degress than the plea- 
sure which you may have 
from riding those horses. 
Moreover, my pleasure is 
more permanent ; because 
it will, at all events, be with 
me as long as my life lasts : 
but your pleasure depends 
upon the lives of the horses, 
which I trust may be, by 
many years, shorter than 
your own life. 




tXi*\J J 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



( r V ) 207 



A. 

What you express, pro- 
ceeds, doubtless, from your 
extreme kindness towards 
me : nevertheless, it so ap- 
pears, that the pleasures of 
this world which, after all, 
must sooner or later en- 
tirely perish stimulate our 
inclination towards them 
according to their nature 
and quality, and not in pro- 
portion to the extent of 
duration which each may 
have, in comparison with 
others. And very often we 
prefer a pleasure which we 
know to be of short dura- 
tion, to that which we are 
certain is by many degrees 
more lasting ; because there 
is more probability of excite- 
ment in that, than in the 
other. Therefore the value 
of our pleasures must not be 
estimated by the time of their 
continuance ; but rather, 
they ought to be appreciated 
according to the sensations 
they create, and the interest 
we feel in them. 

B. 

No doubt ! But the tastes 
and the dispositions of men 
are of different kinds ; and 



M) 

^ -^^ooo o^o . 

U ^^ ^ - ^ 
- ** , 



.? o o-*-. 



1, > O . 



i * ; /^ '\ / i 
l OO & S Ool^u^o CXXA- /.yoo 

, ;,,,' xxx? 
^ ^" ^^- 



_,,, ,,, xxx , , , 



> -* 



Ox 



"* ' ' ) ' ' 



' . .' \ ' 

JOoC^-* J CJo j& K$v'f^ **' 

" , , "-' , -^ , ' 



^_x 

rub &_O\ > o.AtX 
' 




>i . 'l" 5 ' ^ ' /''' i ' ">0x 

5 Uiija/e CU-J\ xL-J /^sr' Ji iaS /.o\ . 



208 (T.A) PEB81AN GKAMMAR. 

it entirely depends upon the 
individual himself which 
pleasure he would prefer, 
and in which he would take 
most interest, or imagine 
there is most excitement: 
for there is no species of 
pleasure in this world of 
which it can be said, " This, 
of itself, contains such and 
such a degree of excite- 
ment," or " that much grati- 
fication," and " every body 
would feel the same amount 
of satisfaction from the ac- 
quisition of it." And hence 
it is, that we frequently see 
that a person takes pleasure 
in a thing in which others 
have no interest, or to which 
they even have a dislike: -\ _Jj\ O ,.** ,S\ i >~J OO , 

-J C_ JJ *-' _/ C^v J 

therefore, if I, in serving 
you, in fact, receive only 
the same amount of plea- 
sure that you receive from 
riding those horses, still, 
the strong probability that 

" the duration of my plea- o-,_o. .., a^oo^o 
sure will be greater than 
that of yours" gives, to that 
extent, a superiority to my 
pleasure over yours. But 




if, in reality, my pleasure of t^> Ot>J 

itself 6e superior that is, . 

- A . V^iO^/eO^ '.I /.wo 

in a given space of time , -J ^ 

I become more gratified 

< 
from serving you, than you 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 0**^) 209 

from riding; then, my plea- 1\ 
sure, in point of quantity -* - 
al^will be more than 

A. ^) 

O ^ O ^,1 TxOOyOxx- ^ . . ' 

Your arguments all turn &= OJ-^Jlx^J (.jJO &+& \^i J-> 3 ^ 
upon this, that my horses 
may die before me ; for in 
that case alone, a portion 
only of your dogmas can 
become verified. But, what j^2\ ^j^ ^Ijj cXi; ^3^ J-Laff 
if the horses should survive > 

me ? 




B. 

You admit, by this state- 
ment, that in your life-time 
there may be a period when 
the enjoyment of riding 
those horses may not be 
attainable by you ; as they 
may perhaps be dead, or 
some other person may have 
become their owner. But, 
as it is not quite possible 
that I should die before 

myself, therefore, whilst I ^ .*. %. ^ A ^ i^cSj \ StXT \3 
am living, my pleasure can 
always be attained. 



A. 

This, likewise, depends 
upon my remaining alive 
as long as you live: but it C^ XjvrsSP , . ,_X_>J +i\) OJ'< Jo\ 

\^S ^J 

2E 



210 (n ) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



is probable that I may die 

before you : in that case 

as it pleased you to say that 

your pleasure consisted in 

serving me there may be ij &!x~J 

a period also, in your time, o^ 

when the pleasure of serving 

me may not be attainable 




\ 

by you> * * -^ '' 

B. 

I was speaking of the '' 

3\ 
pleasure which I had al- -' 

ready acquired from serving 

you : and not of that which, 

t 

in time to come, I might ac- 
quire. And (if it has not 
escaped your memory) in the 
beginning of these discus- 
sions, when you asked me to 

X O.,OQ O TOfO/'Ox 

excuse you fearing I might OU^ Jo OoJ J ui. tXC- ^w j\ 
have been vexed at the al- 
tercation between you and 
the horse-dealer my an- 
swer was this : " You make 

x 

a mistake! My pleasure, in \^*j &^ = oJ\ .^ ^.^ OoJ 
having done you a service, is , ^ , ^ Q , 
greater, by many degrees, 

than the pleasure which you 

Jw^ -1.. 

may have in riding those '*#-' * 

t } ' i 0x00 OO 

horses!" Therefore it makes ^ . \_a_J ^ /*> (J^-ijO tX-X-Auik. 
no difference to me, whe- 
ther you die before me, or 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. C*t') 8H 



survive me. The source of 

L_>OJ *UL-0- 000 \- J00\ /.y j 

my pleasure is attained, and 
it already exists within me ; 
and I shall take pleasure 
in the contemplation of it, 
whilst I live. (V*** '-"*' U~ J ^J ' (* 

A. 

Suppose that I and my -^ 
horses should all survive 



you. In that case, I shall 

take pleasure in riding them 

at a time when you are jfjo* Vfw &=s 

not alive to take any plea- 

7r 1 1 , 1 Z' 1 

sure from your contempla- /\j _> i" /0 j_k. \\>j^ 

^ TT ^^ 

tion : the duration of my 

pleasure, therefore, would OJ\Jj \f& ^ \\ (.* OOJ 

then be greater than that 

of yours. 

B. ( V ) 
Our conversation was on 
the subject of the enjoy- 
ments of this life : but when > 'f ^ ' \ ' i ^ ' ' i 

a person is not in this world, & ^_J^ tXi^uO \-O J ^Ji 

of what enjoyment can he , , ~ , x Q 

be deprived ? ^j oo UJ p* -S? i - 'OO 

A. O) 

Of the enjoyment of sa/- ^. ' -\ "'i (. ' ^ J c l-' ' ' M^ 
vation, which is the greatest '" - u^^ , -^ "^ *T* -^ 

of all enjoyments ! When 
a person, in this world, is 
deprived of any pleasure, 
he may perhaps, at some 
other time, recover the same, 
or may find an equivalent ' '\ 1 C^ ^7 ' f T~ i?'\ \ 

... , ,,. tXJU .JtXBJ, i-~J ,.(!< J^S ,11 

which may anord him conso- 
lation for the loss of it. But 
the pleasures of futurity 



212 CM T) PERSIAN GBAMMAR. 



are not only without equi- 

valent, but the loss of them 

is, to us, a sure sign of eter- > o o 

nal condemnation and mi- Cl . .)tXJ 1 1_> ui-C- * 



B 

"* x 0?T 1 x 1, 1, 'I ^.1 , 000 

I see, again, you are Vj (S^^ >^*aa i^s>- &-^> *3v- o 



mixing the subjects of the 
debate; and, with all this \. 
piety, you are about to con- 
found both worlds together. JliA^I\ >xCi "_i..-,Aj5-_i . .^J ' 

/* ** ^^ J [T^FT L/iJ C^ J 

It is, therefore, better we U 
should here conclude the 
discussion, and suffer the hea- 
vens and the earth to remain 
in their respective places. 



DIALOGUE VIII. 

A. ) 

1^0.^,0 j-Ox -3 O Ox Ox 'x 

Heigh-ho ! The world U.' 3^_Cx^J a lO\^j3 jj JU ^ ^ 
cannot go round without ' 00x OOO^T "*'" '^ 

madmen ! Come, take </tzs, \^ &^= CfU &j Lsk ..xG U' 
and read it! and see w/i< is 
written in it. If this man 
be not mad, then, no mad- 
man can be found on the 
whole earth ! Read aloud; 
-read aloud ! 



B. (reads a Letter.) ( ailySU <UJ>, 

" SlR ' 
" The religious controver- 

sies, which passed yester- \ 
day between us, have made V " ,- 



(') See the Diminutive Particles, pp. 128, 129, &c. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (NT) 213 



me very anxious on the i ' ' ' "r ' f I ' i ' 
subject (lit. concerning the ^ ^j-^'jV y V^ > 
affairs) of your future exis- 
tence. 



? 

-U &-J cj\ \ 
*.'' ^ , " -^ ^ 







" It is one of the blessed 
maxims of our holy religion 
(and, indeed, philanthropy 
and humanity also require 
it), that we should not, by our 
piety and devotion, seek to 
obtain the glories and salva- ' 9 

tion of futurity for ourselves ] oLa\J L? AJO cn^A XJ 
alone ; but we ought to en- 

deavour at the same time, ,- \ '. '<f \ 

*== 0-^3 r**- 1 ^ H-flS 
by our admonitions and ex- ^^ -^ p *>^ 

hortations, to the utmost of 
our power, to guide like- 
wise unto the abode of sal- . . , . .,, ., ., 

vation those [of our fellow- ^USJwj ^-jUj^J &i *jiLx3\3\ 13 *J 
creatures] who, by the temp- 
tations of Satan, having &_O\J i X_LJ XJ y!> --^ 
wandered from the right " - ' * * **2^^ > 

path, are, in the fearful de- 
sert of perdition, bewil- 
dered in the labyrinth of 
misery. 

\ i 'l *" '2 " r ' 

"And it is come down to us, W* tOu^l <5tXij i .U <?r^ ( ~ t ^^ A " )^) 
in the authentic Traditions ,',,';, o . ' . o = .,..< 

of the Prophet (but as I ^o tXJi 
suppose you do not under- 
stand Arabic, I send you a 
translation of the prophetic 

saying in Persian) it is in &==> ' " ^-- j ' C^ ,)' v ^ \' 

the Traditions, that ' all chil- ,',-, ,' -, s, 

dren are born to be of the t>J *-Jw 



( 2 ) The C^iJo- is a body or code of recognised Traditions of the Prophet 
Mohammad, considered to have equal validity, in point of authenticity, with the 
Koran itself. This passage, therefore, cannot be literally translated into English ; 
there being, as I presume, no such Traditions among Christians. 



214 (TIP) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



religion of Islam ; but their 
parents make them Jews, 
Christians, and Ma jus [Magi 
or Fire- worshippers]'. I 
therefore hope, that since 
the Divine favour has now 
guided you into the country 
of the Faithful, the exhor- 
tations of pious people may 
conduct you also to the abode . \ _JooU 
of salvation ! One of the dis- 
interested counsels of your 
well-wisher is this, that, while 
you are in Persia, you do not 
associate with those cursed 
Soofies ; for they not only 
go to hell themselves, but, 
without a doubt, they take 
their associates (be they <_ %JO 
willing or not) with them , -, 
likewise, into the infernal re- (J - v ' 
gions ! Oh ! how do I trem- 
ble for your soul like the 
willow-tree before a mighty 
wind ! Free yourself from 
the chains of the wicked; 
and enter the circle of the 
pious people of Islam, in 
order that, in company with 
them, you may enter Para- 
dise ! And peace be upon 
him who follows the true 
guide!' " 



1 ? x P 1 

tsSj C5jV 



jni 



. 




Jj^ 



,. 



/ ''^'^^ 

U^. w^ &xAj 



8\ 






A J 

-> 





PERSIAN GRAMMAK. ( r l) 215 

What is this? And who 



f. ^ . \ 

is it from? and what is the > 
meaning of it? It has nei- 
ther a seal nor signature, 

Its,') 1.0, "> s, 

whereby one may know who \^J\ &lij y ,5 JOltX) 

has written it ! 

A. (V) 

i WUI te ,, you a,, 

about it. I know who has 
written it. 

Yesterday, after you went 
away from this place, I went 

. . . f .1 

also, to return a visit of the 
Minister for Foreign Afiairs. 

., r .... . ., 

While I was sitting in the 
Minister's apartment (where 
a number of people were 
also present), there entered 
a Mulla (Doctor), apparently 
about sixty-one or two years 
of age ; but, up to that time, 
I had never seen so strange 
a figure! white turband, 
white garments, white man- 
tie ! in short, from head to 
foot, excepting his beard, 
which by dint of dyeing 
looked blacker than jet, he 
resembled snow newly fal- 

len on the mountain- top; 

f ', 
having just come out of the 

bath, with his head and neck 
shaven as clean and as 
smooth as the interior of 
the pearl-oyster, and with 




O Ox 

* i J &, literally means "colour" any colour; but in abstract, it is applied 
to the leaves of the indigo-plant, which are pounded and made into a paste with 
which they dye the beard. 



216 (Ml) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



a beard most diligently 
trimmed, and rounded like 
a half-moon in a state of 
total eclipse, mocking, as it 
were, the ordinary course 
of nature ! his mustaches 
cut close to his upper lip, 
and his lips busily employed 
in muttering ejaculations as 
he approached ; a very neat 
staff in one hand, and a 
rosary of large beads in the 
other ; and, putting all to- 
gether, he appeared the very 
personification of austerity 
and devotion ! As he was 
entering, the assembly all 
reverentially stood up; and 
the apartment itself became 
filled, at his entry, with the 
scent of ottar of roses. >> - 
The Minister ran out, bare- jfyj 
footed, as far as the door of 
the coffee-room, to meet him, 
and, with the utmost reve- 
rence and respect, brought 
and seated him in the high- 
est place ; and himself re- 
spectfully leaving a space 
between them wide enough 
for two or three persons 
took his seat lower down. 



' 



3 






\ v ... > 

" 



'*'"" 







. 
- J^T/ *=%> 



' 7i 

O-3\-5Jj4X-fljJ j^ 



( s ) See Note 2. Dialogue V. 

> ^x 
( ' ) +>.&- , nn Arabic word, literally signifies " a sacred place " or " sanctum." 

It has, besides this, a technical or conventional meaning, in which sense the word 
has here been employed; namely, "the vacant place" left by a person between 
himself and another, out of respect to the latter. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( f ' v ) 217 



B. _ (V) 

Ah! how much prolixity jj^jo^, ^Ill^lj ^ x ^ 
you are giving to your story! >" "^ ' 

e v* i_- 

Say, at once, what was his 



name. Although, I have an > -^ * ' , , 

idea that I already know of ^ <"\^ \\ C \ <" M ' 

(Sjl ^IOOw S^i. u_^-^j) /.we 
whom you are speaking. V > i , * ' 



A - 

They were addressing him, 
"The Rev. Hajee Mulla- 
Zayn-ail-Aubedeen." 

B. 

Now, you have relieved ^ ^ ' 

me! It is the same! 
Everybody knows him \- 
He is among the most cele- 
lebrated of the " Khushks." 



What is "Khushk"? and 
what does it mean ? 



" Khushk" means dry and 
inflexible, like a hard stick, 
which does not bend in any 
direction : but in Persian, it 
is also a metaphor for those 
superstitious people who, in 
regard to matters of reli- 
gion, are injudiciously scru- 
pulous. They call them, also 
" Khar-sauleh." 00,0^0 

A. m 

Be so kind as to explain > - > ' > '. n - 
the meaning of "Khar- &^y>^S 

2 F 




218 ( M *) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 




to me (lit. has a novelty 

B. 

" Khar-sauleh" means a .3 \jj 
pious donkey. This is also ^ 

another metaphor, in Per- X-i \j-XJ i^vX^^C 
sian, for a blockhead, in 
whom real stupidity is com- 
bined with the external 
forms of devotion. That 
is, his folly is natural and 
real ; but his piety is merely 
imitation and blind zeal, 
without discrimination or ^ ^t- , 

judgment in those actions >'**. 

which render a man truly ^j^ \jJi^. p .^\lL.AA.\,,jci\ 
pious and acceptable to God. 
And such persons as these 
are to be found in every 
nation, and in all religions : 
thus, in English, you call 
them " Bigots." OOO C- cJo^ \j$^ 




ever you please ; neverthe- ' \ - ' <^ ' V ' u"\ 

less, he did not appear to ^^ ^ 

me deficient in sense ; for 
many of his proofs and ar- 
guments were well weighed, 
and appeared very plausible. 

B. 

Are any of them still re- 
maining in your recollec- 
tion? What was he saying; 
and what was he arguing 
about ? 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( r '^) 219 

A- ( \ ) 

The controversy was on 
the topic of Faith and Reli- 
gion whether the Moham- 
madan or the Christian Re- ^^ C^ A (*^-rj L? 4X^32? C^uLc \>\ 
ligion was the true faith. 
I said thus: "As the fol- 
lowers of Islam already be- 
lieve that Christ was sent 
by God, and his religion was 
true, this alone is quite suffi- 
cient to enable us Christians 
to establish the truth of our 
religion ; as there can be no 
proof better than the volun- 
tary admission of the oppo- 
nent himself. Therefore 
it is now for the Muslems 
to prove the truth of their 
religion, and shew that Mo- 
hammad was the Apostle of 
God, and, by His command, 
the abrogator of the religion 
of Jesus." 

He answered : " The same 
evidences and proofs which 

teach us to believe the truth ^.xijtSl^J \jC^ JUi ^j: 
of the Christian faith that .",' ' ,/ , 
is, the Kuran and the Tra- 




( s ) In these colloquies, the Persian idiom, or manner of quoting 1 , has been 
preserved ; that is, to make a person repeat his own expressions, as well as to 
repeat one's own expressions, in the very words in which they were uttered when 
spoken. This peculiarity of Oriental phraseology has been already remarked 
upon (Note 5. Dialogue 4.) ; and it has been adhered to in the translation, in many 
places, even when not consistent with English phraseology. But, as it happens 
that, in this instance, the personification is quite admissible according to English, 
it has with propriety been preserved. 



220 (FT.) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



ditions the same also in- ' - 
struct us in the truth of the ** 
Mohammadan religion." 

I said : " Since we Chris- 
tians do not consider Mo- 
hammad a true prophet (lit. 
true), we cannot believe in 
the Kuran and the Tradi- 
tions ; for Mohammad him- 
self is the author of them. 
Therefore, to prove the truth 
of the religion of Islam to 
us, other proofs and testi- 
monies are necessary." 



He answered :" The case ^.. jJO^ /.oi j 
is confined to one or the 

O ^f 

other (lit. is not out) of these \^ C\ ,_ 
two positions. Mohammad 

O x J 

was either true or false. If ^ ^ 
we believe him to have been 
true, we must believe the 
whole of his statements ; and 
if otherwise, we must look 
upon the entire of his say- 
ings and doings with doubt, 
or even reject them alto- 
gether. For it cannot be, 
that we should consider only J 
a portion to be true, and the 

other portion false; so as 

to believe implicitly in some 

(points), and to reject others 

as absolute falsehoods. For 

instance ; you cannot expect 

that the Muslems should be- 
lieve Mohammad, when he 



j 




j J> .j 5 



^jMjjy* 




. x 



'. x 00 
^^ 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



221 



O J 9 s T T r 

says 'Jesus was sent by God, 1 l ,^ \ \ ^ . 

and to reckon him a liar 



when he again says that he 
himself was also sent by 
God ! " 



I said, in reply, " The be- 
lief of a person, or even a 

nation, in an event, does not A Jo.i iVa!xc.\ 

, .. t ^ * ' - ' > 

make it necessar?/ ror others 

also to believe in it; and 
this /ad alone that the 
Muslems believe Moham- 
mad to be true in his testi- 
mony with regard to the 
mission of Jesus is suffi- 
cient to warrant Christians 
in saying to you (Moham- 
madans), We have no need 
of any other evidence to 
prove the mission of the 
Messiah ; for if the use of 
proofs be to establish a 
truth, you already believe 
and con/ess it.' And since 
you consider Mohammad to 

be true in this part of his 

, 
statement, you may also sup- 

pose him so in what he may 
have stated with regard to 
his own mission : but it is by 
no means incumbent upon 
us Christians to agree with 
you in this belief, as we do 
not avail ourselves of what 
your Prophet has stated 
concerning the mission of 
the Messiah ; and our faith 



* S ' ' * jf-* " ' ' J 1 s ' 

s*. So JOSC./e ^j ^- OO v& 

' 




222 (PtT) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



in our own religion does 
not depend upon the testi- 
mony /te bears to the mis- 
sion of the Messiah." 



He said : " It is quite in- 
cumbent upon Christians, in 
their controversies with the 
Muslems (especially when 
they invite the latter to em- 
brace the religion of Jesus), 



to prove the mission of the 
Messiah, and the truth and 
perpetuity of his religion, 
by arguments and testimo- 
nies distinct from what Mo- 
hammad has stated in that 
respect. For, suppose that 
I have abandoned the faith 

, T1 ,-, 

of Islam, and become a 
Christian, because I consi- 
der Mohammad sincere in 
his testimony respecting the 
mission of the Messiah; yet, 
immediately that I become 
a Christian, it becomes a 
vital principle of my faith 
to turn round and consider 
Mohammad a liar. Hence, 
I am bound to consider Mo- 
hammad sincere, in order 
<o prow ten to be a liar; 
and to become a Christian 
through the testimony of a 
man in whom Christianity 
itself teaches me to disbe- 

neve r 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (TIT) 223 



B. 

Aha! I see that the "Akh- \ 
fash's goat " shakes his head 
at logic too ! 

A. 

Akhfash's goat?! What 
does this mean ? This ex- 
pression is also new to me ! 

B. 

Akhfash is one of the 
celebrated grammarians of 
Arabia. They say, that at 
the beginning of his stu- 
dies, whether because he had 
a bad delivery, or had not as 
yet acquired any knowledge 
worthy of being delivered, 
or both God knows best! 
but, certain it is, that at that 
time he could not find a il.* 'j^xx^J c^iXX^J LJJ ->K3 
pupil to whom he might 
repeat what he was in the 
habit of acquiring at public 

lectures or by private stu- L$3*+j U=aJ C? jJ L$S 
dies, and by this means 
sharpen his own wits. Now, 1^> j-X_> u 
you must know, that in y^ 
Eastern Countries, amongst O &-S , 




-> ->, 



(*) XjlflJUu! (an Arabic word) is deriving, or seeking, benefit. It may be from 

X ^ 

any thing. But its conventional meaning (which, in this place, the context of 
the story also indicates) is, attending public lectures. In like manner <S*Jlla (also 
an Arabic word) of itself signifies, looking into, or perusal ; but, contrasted with 
public lectures, its conventional meaning is, private study by oneself. 



224 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



the students, the repeating of 
what they have learned from 
Public Lecturers, either to 
each other or to other pupils, 
is of much greater import- 
ance than the listening to the 
Professor alone. And this 
Arabic maxim is well known 
amongst them, viz. " The 
lecture is equal only *0 "* 
word, but the repetition is a 
thousand." However, the 
poor Akhfash was for a long 
time quite unhappy and dis- 
tressed, and at a loss how to 
supply the want of a pupil. 
At length, he (literally, his 
thoughts) hit upon this ex- 
pedient. He bought a little 
kid, and taught it while yet 
young ; until, by degrees, 
it became quite perfect in 
the part Akhfash expected 
it to perform, which was 
this : As soon as Akhfash 



Oo\ 



. 



>, -,?-> 



, s , ,, , 

Jjo-c cn^= < 
* ' 



oo 



o\-J 



,* 



& - 



tXC. 



^ 






j 



._ 

CJ \j\ 



\j 



,,,,, 



opened any book, and placed ^ ^ 

it before himself, the little 3 ' ,Jyo . L$sJ)j\J ^^13 
instantl bounded * "' 



goat also instantly bounded 
on the other side of the book, 
opposite to Akhfash, and, 
bending both its fore-legs, 
rested on its knees, and, 
fixing both its eyes on the 
face of the teacher, waited 
with profound attention. 
Akhfash would begin lectur- 
ing ; and whenever he came 
to the end of a preposition, 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (ffo) 225 



^ o 



or to a pause, he would look ^SLJ*J\ jOjutMt A V 

the goat in the face, and, in 

a louder tone of voice, ask, 

"Didst thou understand?" 

when the goat, in reply as 

it were, nodded its head 

thrice, as much as to say, 

"Yes!" 



Since that time, "Buze 
Akhfash" has become a nick- 
name for those simpletons 
who have no more active 

, . . ,1. , i .1 

brains in their heads than 
[had] Akhfash's goat, and, 
like the same animal too, 
when a conversation is go- 
ingr on upon some intellec- 
tual subject, of which they 
have not the least notion, 
shake their heads and beards, 
as much as to say, " We 
understand also" 



A. 

You bear too hard upon 
the Rev. Hajee Mulla-Zayn- 

J * 

ull-Aubedeen ! -- I fear 
there is another cause, which 
prompts you to disparage 
him. / inow; he has not 
much friendship for the 





20 



226 (m) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



B. 

There may be something 
in this, too. But look, my 
friend, at my watch! By 
the Persian way of reckon- 
ing, it is now an hour after 
midnight ; and, according 
to the English, one o'clock 
in the morning! Sleep is 
necessary : so, Good night ! 
and God bless you ! 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (f v ) 227 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF THE 

ENGLISH AND PERSIAN TERMS OF GRAMMAR. 



THESE Terms are in common between the Arabian and 
the Persian Grammarians, and owe their origin entirely to 
the former language. 



Ablative. If "by" is prefixed to a Noun in English, the cor- 

O ff T f 1 ^ 

responding term in Persian is &J^)^*&; and if "from," 

or "with,"" &J>. JjX&o, or &*/c,UxA/, respectively. 

i , ,-> t 
Abridgment, j-^lss 6 . 

-'-. . 
Abstract Noun, j~&o j-f W . 

1 1- s 1 ''*''> ' 

Accent, la\5 To accent, u 

*) * *)< O 

Accentuation, C-ss^ ^ or \o 



Accusative, jXi<c, or 

O Z O p O x ' 

Accusative Case, Jl.oJAa/ C^JW ; i. e. a Noun in the Accusa- 
tive Case. 



5 



Action, 

Active Participle, A^^J *>>i 5 &* Noun, or name of agent. 

A Verb in the Active Voice, if it 
Active Verb, 

Active Voice, 

in contradistinction to Verb Neuter, 

Addition, jUL h is termed \* j^ ^ 



o o f o 



be a Transitive Verb, is termed 

, f 1 

^rt) .V*3 j but if only Active, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



228 



t 

Additional Letters, or Particles, OoV^ t 5j^ , or 

* 

also 



Adjective, Oii-p, or 

'? '' II 
Adjunct, (3 s "*' or L? '' 

O 00 x 

Adverb, JW, or u^v> 

\ 

Adverb of Time, ^^) 

1 

Adverb of Place, ^j^ 

O O 

Affirmative Particle, <> 

or (if to swear " %") AJ ^^ *a^ < Plural, cJUj^ for all. 

O *>^* M 

Affirmative Form, *X>^o C^JW , 



Affirmative Verb, C^a 

Affix. The corresponding term to this is never used in the 

ox o x^ c 

Singular Number ; ^i^.W), or Ol&ai/, both being Plural. 

* " >* .x 

But they are rendered Singular, by placing ji ,^0 ("one of") 

O x Ox O , 

before them ; thus, ^^.^J j\ ,XJ . 
Agent (of a Verb), Vc-Vs. 

' TO 

Agent (of a Participle, &c. &c.) +~i\ 

Ox f # ' 

Agreement, OJiii^c, or (JJjy- 

Allegorical) ' -. .x- 

> iJ^oui, or 
Allegory J 

Alphabet (letters of), 



Ambiguous, /& or 

,x 

Annotations, X-^W. Plural, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (fl) 229 



Antecedent, 

Antithesis, 

Aorist, 

Apposition, 

? ~ 
Article, < e^*j * *^ , or < aJ 

^ * 

Auxiliary, &J*J^j Auxiliary Verbs, 



00 . O , 

Copulative (Conjunction), u_p\ac-c-9j^.. 

O x 

Case, OJW, or 
Causal Verb, jj^ 

Clause, i^sLs, or 
Commentary, jA^U , or 

Comparative Particle, XJU^UcJ^, or 
Comparative Degree, 
Comparison (Degrees of) 

1 OJx_ 

Composition, < ajJU. Plural, CjU->J\3, or C->Ui. Plural, 



Compound, S-^/ - 

Concrete (as opposed to "Abstract"), 

Conditional, ^j^' 
Conditional Participle, 

Conditional Clause, 



230 (Cr.) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

i i o , 

Conjugation, u^J, or ( a.^-o->. To conjugate (a Verb), 



Ox, O 



' 
Conjunction, u-ftlxc. 



O O x i O x Ox Ox 

Connective Particle, &j\ t_ 5^., or &isoij . Plural, j^\jj " S j^. 
or \aJ\*< 

> x O 7 .Ox 0^ 

Consonant (as opposed to Vowel), i- r >,X'* t> * r**- . Plural 

OxxOx ' *^ ' 

* !> -^ C ' 

Consequence, ^^S^. 

Ox O x 

Context, J^> y, or 



Dative Case, &J^ 

Dedective, JjVaJ*lj\ . Dedected, (J .v .*, or 

Declension, 

Declinable (Noun), c_Jj*Uk* *-j\. 
Defective, j^sJlj. 

o o 

Defective Verb, jj^sVJ \ju . 

Definite, t_9jjyt, or 
Definitive Particle, 

00 Ox 

Definition, (^-SL^JSJ, or 
Demonstrative Pronoun, 

Derivative, JLx-l*, or J^kV*. 

O 

Descriptive Particle, < a-> 

3 

Diminutive, ^ 



O O Ox ^ O 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (fT|)231 



Discriminative, j+> - 

O O Ox f O x OT 

Disjunctive Particle, &j3 J(__J^, or iJoo \ 

O xO x ' ^ f 

Dual, 



Ellipsis, ,*j4-^*> or .jJL- i.e. any thing understood or supposed. 

O x 

Elocution, ejW 

TO 

Emphasis, tXx 

O x, 

Epithet, t--jjj . 

O x ? Ox 

Etymology, C-cJ ^y^; e. the original meaning of a word. 

O Ox Ox 

Example, ,Jo. Plural, &io-\. 
Explanatory Particle, 

O x 

Expression, * Jw. 

Feet (in Prosody), t-x 

7 
Feminine, C 



O Ox O 



" 

First Person, *&J*o . Literally, Speaker. 

o xO x o c 

Future, AJJJ . 

.. - 1 - 

Form ; Formation ; uJ, or <^V. 



Gender, ^j-J^- ( or - Genus )- 
> 1 \ 
Generic Noun, ( t j H *^'f^ > \ 1 

O x 

Genitive, wUf The Noun which is in the Genitive Case is 

T5^ ff ^ O ? 

termed &>S\ u-5\^y ; and that which governs it, u-^L^c . 



232 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Gerund, & p~ >- A kind of Verbal Noun ; which governs 

Cases, like a Verb. 

OT-; O x ^ Ox 

Grammar, j^, or 



Idiom, 

Idiomatic, ^ 

O x x ' / O x - * -/ 

Idiomatically, O^Wj^\to I O^\ai*J\^^ 

all equally meaning idiomatically, or according to idiom. 

OOx OO^ O ^O^J^T 

Imperative Mood, y^> orj\ c ^4, or^&ixo. 

O O O ^ 

Imperfect Tense, Cfj^-J j^fiW (for, "/ was doing"); or, 

OOxjr ' ' ' 

U r *^*3,y0V< (for, " I Acre done"). 
Imperfect Verb. See Defective Verb. 

O - Ox 

Infinitive Mood, 

TOO 

Index, 

Indeclinable, 
Indefinite, 

Indicative Mood, 

Intransitive Verb, 

o o 

Interjunction, 
Introduction, 

Irregular, /^ H^ When a Noun, or a Verb, deviates from the 
ordinary Rules of Grammar, it is termed r^tlfui, i.e. heard 
from the natives who have so used it. But if such instances of 
deviation are few, or uncommon, the Irregular is then termed 
, i. e. rare. 



or, simply, 



Plural, 



or 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



233 



Masculine Gender, j> o*> 
Metaphor, o'l*ll\ 

f \ ^ ^ 

Metaphorical ) *, = > Plural O\A*LJ. 

'ill** II * * t 

Metaphorically, I 

00^ oox OT > T?y 

Measure, ujj, Plural e;^; or (in Poetry) j&, Plural j^; 



00, -5 

Multitude, Noun of, 



Oy f 

Name, Proper, At (Also Appellation.) 

Ox DX 

Negation, ( ^ . Negatived, 
?' /" 
Negative Particle, ^^ t ^/*- 

. ? ' ? 

Negative Form, (_^ > or 





Nominative, 



Nominative Case, 

'* ^ 

Neuter Gender. The Arabs have but two Genders, Masculine 
and Feminine ; to either of which only a Noun may belong, 
according to its sez, or other grammatical circumstances. 

O o 

Neuter Verb, *' 

/3 o \ 

Noun, **J 

' 

Noun Adjective, C 
Noun Derivative, j-L< 

O w 

Noun Primitive, iXW * >^, or ^ 

' K ' ""x 

O 

Noun Substantive (as distinguished from Adjective), iJ!jiS ^. 

O , , 

Noun of Time, ^lc^*~)i. 

2H 



234- (rrP) PEKSIAN GRAMMAR 

O x- 

Noun of Place, (J&c ,*-~\- 

1 x O 

Noun of Instrument, LJJ ' * ' 



Object (as governed), 
Object (as intended), Ly 

Z, ? 1 x x 

Objective Case, C-OJ^**,* id W . A Noun governed by 

x- X 

another, or by a Verb. It may be in the Accusative, Dative, Abla- 
tive, or Vocative Case, &c. &c.; for any of which, see under 
their respective heads. 

Oblique Cases. See Objective Case. 
Original (meaning of a word), 

*,''*> ? O 

Optative Mood, <]&+> Ax9, or <J,Vo A*3- 

** x- s ' 

O 

Optional, c5 ; \Alk\. 

. 
Ordinal Number, 



OxxxO? 



Paragraph, C. 

O. ' 

Paraphrase, <^u 

5 ... 

Parenthesis, &^ *i<Xto, or (for a whole sentence) &+o->JtA> &XJT . 

*) 'I s ~ *> f 9 

Particle, * *r^ Plural, *JU.^. 
Participle. See Active, and Passive. 

Passive Voice, L ^j4^'^3 A9 ' 

O 9 > * 1 

Passive Participle, J^*^ (*>' 



Past Tense, (j^^o> or 

'Is O ? j 

Perfect Tense, (J^ 5 * 1 /5^^ 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. C* 1 " ) 235 



w 

Perfect Verb, *$ ^J-^3; Le. a Verb having all the Regular Tenses 
and Moods. It is used in contradistinction to an Imperfect or 
Defective Verb. 



00 , f 

Pluperfect Tense, 



O OP 1 



Plural, --. 

O -39 -) 

Potential, { .f^. Potential Mood, w 
Predicate (in Logic), ^jlj ; (in Grammar), j+L . 

'.O ,. 00 

Poetry, J&J, or JLJ. 

O ^ O 

Preface, &a.\JO^. (This <erm is purely Persian.) 

\ "* ' 1 * 1 -^ P P 

Prefix, j-oj cJ^. . Plural, ^-ijj^ 

Preposition, j** ^y^ , or obU Plural, 5 .W uJj .*. 

Pronoun, ^*xs . Plural, Jf^e . 

Pronoun, Separate or Personal, 
Plural, 



O .0 



-S", 

O 5 ? O 

Pronoun, Adjunct or Affix, 

v ^ a 9 s 

Plural, 



Pronoun, Relative, vjj*^y- Plural, ^ 

O x 

Pronoun, Demonstrative, 8J&\+d. Plural, 

V" ? - 
Pronoun, Reciprocal, (^x&.*. Plural, 

\ - i 
Pronoun, Interrogative, *\4ftx->\ >V. Plural, 

I ' 'L ' 

' 

Pronoun, Possessive, s 

. O x ^ 

Pronunciation, iai\3, 



or 



236 (1*1*1) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

O O x 

Prose (as distinguished from Poetry), Jj . 

1' Q ' 

Proposition (in Grammar) &XJr : (in Logic or Mathematics) 

i rt f * 

Prosody, u^/ 1 - 

OO^Ox O 

Qualified Noun, cJj-s^o ,*-j\, 

Quality (or the power of any one Part of Speech grammatically), 

" ~ 

\, or t^x^U^. 

, 'o 1 x ' ' 

Quantity, ^jjj, or ^Vo-o- Plural, u^jS or 

o '?' > * x ' 

Quiescent, tjf^> ******> or 

5 ? 

Quadriliteral, ^Vj- 

. c O 

Quadriliteral Noun, ^ V; ' 

oc* 

Quadriliteral Verb, ^ 



Reflective Verb, 

Regular, (j^S^* 

Relation (as between Parts of Speech), O.x ....* > or 

Relative (as subjoined to Antecedent), 

Rhyme or Rhythm, S^JvS, or 

Root, 



>>. 



x, OxO 9 

8S, d?r , or 

T x T 

or 



Sentence, * 
Sequel, oaI3, - 

Simple, 






PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( ri ~ v ) 237 



x O ? O 



Simple Noun, $Jl*p~i\, or 

1,1? x x O ? Ox 

Simple Adjective, -3j& UUa-o , or .iyLoU-tt*3j, &c. &c. 



Plural, SZji* ctf, &5.$i<^*>j, or 

Ox O f o J O x O 

Simple Verb, ^jlia^^JAi, or t^jJD JU JjtS , (as opposed to 
Subjunctive). 

V ' * 

Simple Peterite, (3^^ > (_5^ 1 



0x0 f 



Singular (Number), tX^.i, or X&<, or O^UXjLu^, &c. &c. 



O x^ O ^ O x^ -- } 



Speech (the Parts of), *j,j,^.. Plural, *1 >\y*>\. 

00 y Ox . J^ 

Speech (the Faculty or Power of), JjiaJ, or JusU 2j$ 



\ \ 

Speech (an Oration), &jaai. , or ijuai 

X 

O x 

Style (of Writing), C^Ut- Title (Appellation), (. 

O S x f 

Subject (of a Predicate), ,oJle . 

i O 7 O x 

Subject (of a Discourse), ^ ->.-A-c , or '_ 

OO^Ox O Tax? O 

Subjunctive Verb, or Mood, i^j-L* Vati , or OoJU Jjt3 , if 

O O 9 O x O 

the Verb be Conditional; ,^^0^1*3, if Suppositive ; and 



O <> O O 

, if Doubtful. 



. 

Superlative Degree, JJwxso , J.x^i5 aoJ^c, or 

Plural, u-Je, &C. &c. 



\ ' \ '\ 

Supplement, J^J Plural, ^J^. U , or Ouiai* ; also 

^ X 

O O* T x 

Suppositive, ^^0^- 

O 1x F 1 

Syntax, j^:, or Vx>^j 



O ) 



Term, r MU9' Plural, 



238 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



O ^ ^ x O D s f 

Terms of Grammar, s^3 



Terms of Logic, aoJas-x* oW^asus \ 

* * x s 

Terms of Mathematics, &J-0Vj. 

, J , , , 

' '' \M\ x ^ 

Terms of Philosophy, J*ifl**I<>Wj*y^, or C1-*X^. Of 
Philosophers, *V^X^. oWilk-o\, or 

^ ' S 

OxO?O^ 

Terms Technical (in general ), &*O 



Text (as opposed to Commentary), (.>** 
Title (of a book), i_Aji ^*\ . Proper Name, 

Appellation, *,._.,* a ' . Plural, 

5 TxT ^ 

Title-page, --Jj~j, or 

.-\ * : 
Triliteral, (Jj, or 

o 

Triliteral Verb, ^ysSjJ^ Jjti. Noun, 

Root, ^js2P,ijL> \&*&c. 
Typical (Emblematical), Cj^"&, J\-tJ, 
Typography (Printing), Xfulj, V'H"' / t ^ 5 ' 



1\ ''i 'i^v Q " \"C 
Vacation (Holidays), \_xAsuo , or V-xlsjtJ *u\ 

3 , 1 ' ** 

Vague, *4J-. 

' O O x O * 

Variable (Declinable), i 



Variation (of Cases), 

Verb, 

Verbal Noun (the Infinitive), 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (fTl) 239 






Verbatim, iu2b\aA). 

TO' o x 

Verse, j*-^> or JfaJ 
Version (Translation), &r 

M 

Vocabulary (Dictionary), 'J!+J , or 
Vocative (a Noun in Vocative Case), 

Vocative Particle, ^oo ^^ - 

* f* 

Voice. See Active and Passive. 

00 O 

Volume (a Book), tX^s*. , or ^^ 

s 
O O T -3 

Vowel (Points), v^j-^' or O\J\ . 

*3 -* O w ^ 

Vulgar (People), Jljfr, or 4^ui\^ 

T ' T x 

Vulgar (Diction), *^ ) \lflS', or ^ 



x 

Unambiguous, *^>-ej or 



^ ^. 

Unaspirated (A, or &), &.Q.\Q^. *VA, or o>i LJ *V* ; ?'. e. the quies- 

x 

cent . 

Unchangeable. -See Indeclinable. 
Uncommon (rarely used), ji\3, or iVt. 

0<>0x 

Unconnected (not coherent), as applied to Composition, IsOyeU, 

(which also means, " Nonsense.") 
Unity (between the Parts of Speech, or in composition), 

,, 

or ru.. 

^ O >' O ^ -0 f 

United (Grammatically), A*flj*, or ^j^>. (See Pronoun.) 



Utterance, la&U. 

J Ox 

Word, laid, or 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



APPENDIX 



ON THE USE OF THE ARABIC WORDS 



THE Persian of the present day being so much mixed with 
Arabic words, I think it almost indispensable for a student 
of the former language to acquire some slight knowledge of 
the rudiments of the latter. 

Independently of quotations, and whole Arabic phrases, 
with which the Persian writings abound, there is scarcely a 
Persian line, or sentence, which does not contain some 
words, either purely Arabic, or of Arabian origin. Not- 
withstanding this great influx of foreign words, the genius of 
the Persian language remains unchanged. The aliens, how- 
ever, are all subjected to the same laws, and are governed 
by the same rules of Grammar., as if they were purely 
native words. They may be considered as so many abstract 
words, denoting certain, but indefinite, meanings : if they 
are used as Nouns, they are declined, in all respects, the same 
as the Persian Nouns ; and if as Verbs, they must be con- 
jugated in the same manner. In the instances of the former 
kind, the Arabic words admit of the same grammatical > "7 ^ 

Particles being affixed or prefixed to them, with which the 
Persian Nouns are uniformly declined ; and in those of the t 

latter, they are simply prefixed (without any alteration) to all 
the Persons, in both Numbers, throughout the Tenses and 
Moods of one of the Auxiliary Persian Verbs, both in the 
Active and the Passive Voices.* 



* See the Persian Compound Verbs, p. 85. 
21 



242 (fPr) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

The Arabic words, thus used by the Persians, do chiefly 
belong to some one or other of the following original 
classes. 



THE MOST COMMON FORMS OF THE MASDAR t 

VERBAL NOUNS OF TRILITERAL RADICAL VERBS, 



SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 



o o ^ 


, 


Slaughter, \^ 


J** 








Vice, JL~ J 


V*3 2. 


* 


oof 


Employment, iV*' 


Jjti a 


xO , 


2- ^ ^ 


Mercy, **") 


ki 4. 


Science, <L*X&. 


M*3 5. 


?.- ' 


x 
Ox ^ 


Power, jf 4^x3 


Ax3 6. 


Search, t__Ajs 


\Jt3 7. 


O x 


o ^ 


Falsehood, c_-<_xi 


\Jt3 8. 


i '' , 


Ox x x 


Conquest, JLAi- 


&lx3 9. 


Ox x 


>' 


Theft, xi>^ 


&\A3 10. 


Ox 


x 


Childhood, j^ 


J*3 11. 


Guidance, ^jOob 


1*3 12. 


o f 


O x 


Going, e_J\Ai 


JlatJ 13 - 


o 


O 


Standing, i*^* 


J\*3 14- 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (PI 6 !*) 243 



SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 



Asking, Jl^^"* 


JUtJ 15. 


2' ' 


Ox 


Hating, *\tXC 


iO\Jt3 16. 


i 


Ox 


Worshipping, 22\j*- 


&)l*3 17. 


o * f 


Ox ? 


Bravery, XC-lsS* 1 


&)\X3 18- 


o o ^ 


O O x 


Directing, \_xJi 


J-XX3 19. 


o o ? ? 


00 t f 


Entering, ij**-^ 


Jyt3 20. 


o o,x 


O O *> x 


Accepting, ci>^ 


JjX3 21. 


Plundering, S^S- 


Loti 22. 


o , n r i 


0,0^ ? 


Cold, &^j r* 


<>J^X5 23. 


0x0 < , 


Oxoy x 


Necessity, . ^ 


aJxs 24. 


X x 


, x 


Intention, c^.-^A-c 


Jia* 25. 


-> T x 


O T s 


Gaming, jJ^ 


J^** 26. 


1 O x ^ O x 


Ox , , 


Station, JLOw* 


&Xx 37. 


Ox O^ 


Ox Ox 


Praising, S&+SP 


m*ji 28. 


' " 


O x 


Claiming, Q*5 


,V^*J 29. 


,T _ 


O 


Mentioning, (i5j^ ^ 


ti^JtJ 30. 


x 


C 


Congratulation, (l?r^ 


J^j 31. 


Concealing, (jj^C^ 


(jh*i 32. 


Disappointment, (.j^r*- 


^j'iUi 33. 



244 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. 


MEASURES. 


o o ? 

Pardoning, cA^" 


f 

jj'iijtJ 34. 


Palpitation, ^\A$A. 


^j^Uj 35. 


Disliking, ^^o 


<Lx)\AJ 36. 


> o 
Measurement, <tNft/ 




JVxfi< 37. 


O O ? O x 

Distraction of mind, ^j^S^c 


) T x 

J*3ti 38. 


Usage, Xncv-Jyt 


Ox O ? O x 

&}ytLt 39. 


Safety, N>^ 


iicli 40. 


1 x 'Ox 

Dominion, &&/ 


Ox C X 


Sleeping at mid-day, <OAj^ 


JA*3 42 - 


0, 1' 

Peril, &^43 


&bta3 43. 


Travelling, 3'1 > 


o o 

JWflJ 44. 
-^-^ 


Extreme playfulness, i_>V*iJ 


O Ox 

\Vjti3 45. 


Excessive cutting, pUsJU 

> x 

Enormous falsehood, t >iixi 


Jljtij 46. 
j\*3 47. 


Great enmity, *L<iju 


*\3e 48. 


INCREASED TRILITERALS, t 


*#. 


O 

Expulsion, r^J^-' 


3^i i. 


O O Ox 

Arrangement, i_-oJJ 


00 Ox 

\jjtaj 2. 



*>,'*> 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. C* 1 ^) 245 

SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 

O p ^ " o i ^ ' 

Learning by degrees, JjtJ .V*-^ 3 ' 

Pretending ignorance, i!-*^ \\&3 4. 

Oxx 9 2" . ' 

War, or Reciprocal slaughter, <id5uLe <Sdi\i- 5. 

o o o o 

Avoiding, c-Ajo^.' J\JtxJ\ 6. 

O i ? ' o.oo 

Asking assistance, jUAXWi JytaiL^i V. 

Being broken, or fatigued, ASol v j\xftj\ 8. 

O u, O O 

Travelling with haste, ii Aa>.i ,J\xS\ 9- 

* * * s 

O O O O T T 

Wearing a rough garment, ( ^\JL-.JL~w\ JV*jot3\ 1- 
Excessive redness, 



Excessive blackness, Afubii ,\^L>ot5\ 

O xxO x o^x O ^ 

Causing to put on a sheet, JUOiXa. 

* * 



Deputing, 

Causing to put on foot-socks, x> ^. jj^ ^ 15. 

> ' ; ' o.,o, 

Causing to put on a hat, &^jjji &ijjsj 

Pruning, 

Causing to put on drawers, &J..-J &Jx3 

Causing to put on a cap, 

Putting on a sheet, 

Putting on a garment without 1 "* : f - \ ">'.<. 

sleeves, >** >**> 2L 



246 (fr*1) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 



Putting on stockings, i^_>j *s \- Jo 22. 

Putting on a hat, , jjjjjij \jjti3 23. 



Being pruned, t _o ^ *; \jujjj 24 



Putting on drawers, V "j V^AJ 2 5. 



o o o 



Going backwards, /..A ...'vii\ \jljjcS \ 26. 

0-^, O O TU__ o O 

Reposing on the back, *\JLSJuj\ 4 ^)sJJt3\ 27. 



VERBAL NOUNS OF RADICAL AND INCREASED QUADRILITERAL 

OO 

VERBS, tXV 



Exciting, 

Putting on a vest, iJ^J^ iJ^*^ 2 ' 

Assembly, /< 

Shrinking from fear, j\yt-!L9\ ,J^*i\ 4 - 



TOO 



Forms and Examples of Attributives, or Participle Actives, 
as derived from the Infinitives of Triliteral Radical Verbs, 
in order to denote Excess ; and are termed ^Lu. *UJ, i. e. 

1,9') 

Nouns of Excess. (The Singular ^Ixo^l, Noun of Excess.) 

Ox Ox 

Extremely cautious, ><Jc^ i\** 1- 

Extremely knowing or learned, ** iV^** 2 ' 

A great striker, L_Jw<3 ,]**9 3 - 



PEBSIAN GRAMMAR. (nV) 247 



SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. 

00 9 






3 



o o i 



Extremely silent, i^^vC^ \JOLJ 14- 



4. 



A great discriminator, 

O u> 9 O w * 

A great cutter, pusJ vj\*9 S- 



A great speaker, (jr*-** (j*^ 6 6 - 

00 ? 

A great warrior, <__Mj3C? JVA&O 7. 

O O O O O 

A great deceiver, J4Xs2 8 V-Xxa^j 8. 

A great drinker, C.-O ^ \$** 9 - 

. w x x 

A great changer, *_S\--o ij^* 10 ' 

A great laugher, sS^? i*3 1 1- 

o a ; a ' 

A great alterer, or changer, v _A'i \jt3 12. 



Extremely fearful, u-oofc VxJ 13. 



A great fomenter of distur- " A "\ ' 

bance, L ^'*~ J uT*^ 15- 



Extremely impatient, p' }^ L)^* 16 ' 

O O O O 

A great eater, \y\t -^ Jux3 17. 

O O x O O x 

Extremely timorous, (jW-* (o*** 18 - 

A great talker, J Jjj ftlxfiJ 19. 

f -f 

OO*"5 X OO^Ox 

A great sleeper, $*$ . J*&J 20. 



It is proper to remark, that of the Twenty Measures which 
have been noticed and exemplified here, there are only three 






248 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



or four which can be considered as of frequent occurrence, 
either in the Persian or Arabic language : and of these, 

tx 00<V >> , 

in a peculiar degree, the measures JU, Jy<i, and Jo*s are 
worthy to be impressed upon the memory with care. 

In addition to the examples offered in the Table, the fol- 
lowing may also be remembered, as mostly occurring in the 
Persian language : 



-u ' Very wise, or omniscient 
(* (an attribute of the 
Deity). 

Z"fl A great Creator (also an 
t-5 attribute of the Deity). 


11 X 

jtxfw All-hearing : 

1 ; Universally-informed: (all 
J^^~ attributes of the Deity.) 

O O ? s 


w ' 

L?3j An universal provider. 

n ? , 
jiy^-C- Fery forgiving. 


^y^ Very patient. 
.jjJs Very unjust. 


11 


; o ? x 


j-^^ Very discerning. 


\y^^> Very grateful. 


^=*-\ Most merciful ; 

\ 


,)4ak. Very ignorant. 


> i * 
,.,\^"t (or, as it is generally 
'-' > > ,t* 
written, (^>^j) Most 


Q \"j A great calumniator, or 
f tale-bearer. 


compassionate: 





Forms and Examples of Irregular Participle Passives, as 
derived from the Infinitives of Triliteral Radical Verbs, and 
employed as Attributives, having a Transitive 



sg- 



nification : 

SIGNIFICATION. 

Wounded, 
Accepted, 



EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 

O O x O O x 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( ^ ) 249 



SIGNIFICATION. 



Sacrificed, or having \\ \i 

the throat cut, \_ , *** 



Seized, or possessed, c*^* L/*' 

T O 

Concealed, ^* ( J- C '^ 5 - 

1 ^ x 



Broken, *Uoa. , J\*3 6. 



Cut, or filed, JUsVjJJ &)lx5 7. 

Drunk at a single 



draught, 



In addition to the above forms, it may be observed, also, 
that the following Participle Passives are of most frequent 
occurrence, as Attributives, in the Persian language. 



, synonymous to \yJ^L^> , celebrated. 

o T 9 rt ^ 

, for c-Jitxasy, beloved. 



for ,*ctXc, blamed, or reproached. 



> for 3Ja<e , banished, or expelled. 

>/,, 

> for +j^.j/c , stoned to death, or detested (an appellation of 

the devil). 



-> -3 X 

for stain. 



">"> 



-> <"> ^ 






> for _v>4Xcj sacrificed. 

> for .U-xiL*, accepted. 

' a messenger, or prophet, but literally serif, which invariably 
supplies the place of the Regular Participle, 

2K 



250 (TO.) PEBSIAN GRAMMAR. 

Forms and Examples of ATTRIBUTIVES, or DERIVATIVE 
NOUNS, as flowing from the Infinitives of Triliteral Radical 
Verbs, which are in themselves uniformly Neuter and Intran- 
sitive, or occasionally admit of a Neuter and Intransitive 

1 s Zs ? 

Acceptation ; and are termed, <LfxL cudic Collectively, or 
<i(ji.<i e^g*o Singly ; i.e. Adjectives resembling, or having 
the same import as Participles. 

SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 



Generous, or noble, (*> (3"^*"* 

119 s 119s 

Jealous, or high-minded, J>)^ v3?*"* 

Isl s 1,1s 

Of deep-red colour, _^*"~ v3** 3 ' 

Resplendent, or shining, (J}\J^ U*^ 4 ' 

Chief (a term applied to the descen- oJLLj VxxJ 5. 

dants of the Prophet Mohammad), ^S 

? ' 
Virtuous, good, or beautiful, ' ' ll *~^' 



Joyful, or glad, - J ^" 



Thirsty, or dry, u V-Lto* a ^*3 

Iff 1 ! 9 

Polluted, or impure, S-* 1 *^ (3*^ 

Yellow, or bile, ^\jL>a *^*3 10. 

Thirsty (feminine), tj^ ^ S^* 3 

' 1 s f Is? 

A shepherd cruel to his flock, /*" % i,/* 3 

Aged, or great, j^ (,/*^* 13 . 

of > < 

Brave, or enterprising, ^^ L)^^ 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. ( f I ) 25 I 

SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLES. MEASURES. 

5 O ^ O x 

Difficult, or arduous, i^^.*^ Wj 1 5. 

Empty, or cipher, 0^? \x9 16. 

"i O ? -3 o ^ 

Hard, or solid, t *L<3 Vjts 17. 

5 ' x o r , 

Intelligent, or sagacious, i)~&J V*3 18. 

Cowardly, or timorous, rj^ 1 ^ ]^*^ ^ - 

Noble, chief, or aged, \jS ]^*J ^^ > - 



Pregnant (applied to rational beings 

only), ' "* ' *" 



Naked, or stripped, ^\j ^, /..^ixS 22. 



Starting (generally, an ass) at one's /c/vj-I 
own shadow, 



A white-haired camel, CJ^^ J*** 24. 

1 ^ x *) s s 

Living (an animal), ^Vx^ ^11x3 25. 

Ox- O ^ O x T s 

Mean or contemptible, JLx^. V*Jw3 26. 

Ingenious, or clever, P"^T L/^'* ^^' 

Ox T ^ 

Eloquent, A> J^S 28. 



A pregnant camel, in the tenth A-Lfi. -^i*J 29. 

month of gestation, 



Fat, stout, or bulky, JV J* 3 30 - 



The Student will observe, that although the above thirty 
measures are of frequent and promiscuous occurrence in 
Arabic, yet all of them are not commonly met with in the 



252 (POT) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



Persian language. Those &+&<, ^JLc which are of most 
frequent occurrence in the Arabic language, and are chiefly 
used by the Persians, are the following measures ; viz. 

o O OO- OO^x O - p Ox O .<*** iri ?s O xOx 

' and <-^' ; as ' 



Good, or beautiful. 
Noble, or honourable. 
Hard, or difficult. 
Unjust, or tyrannical. 
Heroic, or brave. 



Fearful, or cowardly. 

Rough, coarse, or 
harsh. 

Impure, or polluted. 

Jealous, or high- 
minded. 

rr Foolish, idiotic, or 
'' ^' simpleton. 



O O O ^ O 

NOUN OF SUPERIORITY, A^JAJ -J\. 

K -" 

The measures of this Noun, in Arabic, is, for the mascu- 

^xOx xO* 1 OxO x O^Ox 

line, J*sl ; and for the feminine, J*j ; as, ^1 , or Jacl , both 

^T? ' - OP 

meaning " greater," or " greatest" ; and ^jf , or ( _ s *&c. , the 



same. 



In Arabic, this Noun supplies the place of the Compara- 
tive, and Superlative, in other languages. Although the 
Persians have a proper Comparative and Superlative in their 
own language, yet they not unfrequently employ the Arabic 
forms also. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAB. ( r O 253 



O x*- *- Ox 



NOUNS OF INSTRUMENT, +~>\, or 

These Nouns have three Measures, J*^, &*JU>, and 

x x 

; as, 

A milk-pail, or the instrument of milking. 
A broom, or the instrument of sweeping. 

o o 

But the measure Jl*i is of the most frequent occurrence, 
and is very extensively used in Persian ; as, 



A key, or the instrument of opening. 

A scale, or the instrument of weighing. 

A measure of capacity, or the instrument of measuring. 

Scissars, or the instrument of cutting. 
\JLlk<e A saw, or the instrument of dividing. 
\j*vc A lamp, or the instrument of giving light. 

o o 

.uotro A standard, or the instrument of proving money. 

o 

A bird's beak, or the instrument of pecking. 
&c. &c. &c. 



NOUNS OF TIME AND PLACE, *~>\ , or (jj^-ej jyW 

1 ,t , T T^ 

These have two Measures, JJM*> and <J*<u ; both of which 
are of frequent occurrence in the Persian language ; as, 
Jiiu " the time and place of slaughter " ; &c.y " the time 



254 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



and place of promise," &c. &c. Although these Nouns in 
Arabic often imply both time and place, yet, when used in 
Persian, the place alone is intended by them ; as, 

A mosque, or the place of j " /\ ' A habitation, or thep/ace 
worship. | '-^" of dwelling. 



A station, or the place of 
resting. 

The Easfj or the places 

\wherethesun 

The West) rises and sets. 



A school, library, or the 
place of keeping books. 

A ford, or the place of 
crossing a river. 



&c. &c. &c. 



There are a number of Nouns in Arabic, which, although 
destitute of a Feminine sense or termination, are applied as 
of the Feminine Gender, and therefore denominated, in 

li, , v's? 

Arabic Grammar, <cxU, cuLw^o, or IRREGULAR FEMININES. 
Many of them are of frequent occurrence in Persian ; but 
there they are merely treated as Substantives, without any 
regard to their Gender. The following are some of them : 



SIGNIFICATION. 

The hand, 

The arm, 

A cubit, or half 
the arm, 

The palm of the 
hand, 

A finger, 
The liver, 



SIGNIFICATION. 

:, or foun- 
tain, 



8. The neck, 



6? 9 - 


A 11C UcUJA \JL 

neck, 


(-J& 10. 


The shoulder, 


O ^ O 




*Jww2i 11. 


The tongue, 



jo^T 12. The ear, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (" 60 ) 2^5 


SIGNIFICATION. NOUNS. SIGNIFCATION. NOUNS. 


o 


Ox 


A hatchet, <jJj 32. 


The stomach, (*J**r 


o Ox 


O 


A bow, (*f3^ 33 ' 


The buttock, C^~>\ 14- 


00 


O x 


Coat of mail, c-j3 34. 


The hip, '^59 15> 


OOP 


'. 


A spear, or lance, ^r*. 35. 


The thigh, ois? 16. 


00 xO x 


,' 


A sling, /J_xjosu 36. 


The leg, JjLj 17. 


Ox 





War, ^J** 37- 


The foot, ./^J i8 ' 

^ 


Peace, J > 38. 


-i 

, 

A step, ,*<X9 19- 

r 


x 


*5 ^ 


A stick, or staff, UCL 39. 


The heel, t__uLc 20. 

x- 


A ladder, JL-J 40. 


The womb, ^.. 21. 


". 
A pot, or kettle, J 4 ^* 41 ' 

Salt, J" 42. 


The feet of the \ , ' , 
cloven-footed i p\ ^ 22. 
animals, J ^^ 

The soul, or life, ttJo 23 ' 


o o 

Musk, dX-w-c 43. 

xP 


OP 

The spirit, .. 24. 


A night journey, i^S ^ 44. 


Age, ^.^j 25. 


OOP 





A demon, or satyr, Jii- 45. 


Trowsers, yj^.j 26. 


A fox, t_^*j 46. 


x 

A shoe, \jjj 27. 


O P x 


^ 


A hyaena, ;*J^ 47> 


A house, .\.i 28. 


O O x 


x ' 


A panther, iX$J 48. 


Wine, j+^. 29. 


O O P x O , 


, 


A spider, O^Cjtf 49. 


A cup, or bason, (*& 30. 


xO x O O w 

A scorpion, (__> JLc- 50. i A knife, cn j 31. 



256 (f 61) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 




SIGNIFICATION. NOONS. SIGNIFICATION. 


NOUNS. 


O ;; x x 

Hell, ^yg ^ 66. 

\ 


A hare, 


O ^ Ox 

\^j<\ 51. 


Hell-fire, o lai 67. 


A fish, 


00? 

Op 52. 


o o x- 

( (J^ 68 - 
A road, 

I i i x 

\$+~* 69. 


A boat, 
A well, 


OO f 

C^JlJ 53. 
jj 54. 


Prosody, (^^J^ 70 - 


A bucket, 


jU 55. 


on x 

An oath, /.w>^j 71. 


The sky, 


^V^U) 56. 


The north (wind), Jl^i 72. 


The earth, 


(>9^ 57. 


o 

Armour, --A' 73. 


Wind, 


o o 


o o ? 

A market-place, LJ-J** 3 7 ^- 


The sun, 


/wstflj 59. 


T Ox 

A palm-tree, V.a 75. 


The forenoon, 


jt^ 1 60. 


A rib, Lo 76. 

The breast (of a ; 

L?tX> 77. 
a woman), " 


A garden, also 
Paradise, 

Flaming fire, 


T O x- Q 

(j-j3y 61. 

X 

O O x 

- ^? dt ~ J 62. 


X X 1 




O 


A mill-stone, d^ J 78- 


Fire, 


jV3 63. 


o ,' 




O O x 


A horse, (J* r* 79 - 


He, { 


O^sr^ 64. 

O x X 

JLj 65. 



OF THE ARABIC PLURALS. 



One of the important classes of Arabic words, which are 
of most frequent occurrence in the Persian language, con- 
sists of the Plurals. Of the Plural, in the Arabic language 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (fF-ftV) 257 

there are various descriptions and forms. It has first, by 

oo x o 

the Grammarians, been resolved into #=* , or JL, and 

t i x 

Oi x f 

j^Lo ; terms which literally signify whole or perfect, and 
broken or imperfect : but the former may with equal propriety 
be termed regular, and the latter irregular. 

Of the first, or Regular Plurals, we have no occasion to 
treat at large, as they scarcely ever occur in Persian; with 
the exception of a few in the Feminine forms, which are 
invariably to be recognised by the termination or Feminine 

O _ O xx 

sign of Plural, cjl ; as, ej]^- dangers, the Plural of 

"> Ox O ! 

J- ; cyUi'jj events, the Plural of <x*i>!j ; ejU-$~c important 

m ? O 0?0x 

affairs, the Plural of *^ ; cubyLo letters, or epistolary writ- 

O OP Ox 

zwg-s, the Plural of c_>yiCe; &c. &c. 

It is chiefly of the second, or the Irregular Plurals, that 
I here propose to offer a number of Examples frequently 
occurring in the Persian language. The Irregular, or 
Broken Plurals, ^ILo j-*?-, have again been divided into two 
distinct species, corresponding, in their technical appellation, 
to the peculiar uses for which they were originally invented, 
and to which they are still for the most part, although by no 
means (especially in Persian) uniformly, applied. The first 
of these species has been pronounced applicable to limited 
and small numbers ; i. e. extending from three inclusive to 

O w O f O x 

ten, and therefore denominated iJLLj) ^c>-, or Plural of 
Paucity ; and the second, as extending in its application to 
all numbers beyond ten without limit, has received the ap- 

OxOx O ' 1 x 

pellation isy&l j-*a- , or Plural of Multitude ; a subdivision 

of which has again been termed e^==' -^Juu, or e^=r' t^" ' 
i, e. the extreme, or the Plural of Plurals. The first of these 
species, or the Plural of Paucity, comprehends only four 

2 L 



258 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



O?Ox O Ox Ox O> 



measures ; namely, Jwl , JU*I , iUil , and &* : but each of 
these is the common measure for the Plurals of a number of 
Nouns which themselves are of different measures when in 
the Singular Number. 



1. Nouns which form their Plurals of Paucity 



1 



PLURAL. SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES. 

O Ox 



O ? Ox 



^ ^ 



SL>\ The soul, 
A cubit, 
An oath, 
A foot, 
A female kid, 
A cow's hoof, 



OOx 



2. 

3 ' 

4. 

5 - 



O-* 1 

Jlxi 6. 



f 



s 



Ifc*-' 

2. Nouns which form their Plurals of Paucity 

O Ox "> Ox 

A tablet, \jt 1. 

0, 

An order, 

Possession, 

Brave, 

The heel, -^,^,'0 g. iy*^ ^' 

X X 

^ x O ^ x 

The arm, Ou^t V^3 6. 

The neck, , iic \jti 7. 



O,' 1 1 f 

^ J*3 . 

** ** O O 

J*3 3. 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



259 



3. Nouns which form their Plurals of Paucity 

P PLURAL. SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES. 



5 

s 



A\ \ > A \ e 



ry 

x 

5 



Food, 

An ass, 

A raven, 

A loaf of bread, 

A pillar, 

4. Nouns which form their Plurals of Paucity 

~'i 

A boy, or slave, 
A young deer, 
A friend, 
A bull, 
A son, 



JUi 



- ; 5 



OxT x ? O x 



The Plural of Multitude, S/Sllj^, comprises nineteen 
Measures ; according to each of which, several Nouns, dif- 
fering also, in most instances, in their Measures of Singular, 
form their common Plurals. It is to be observed, however, 
that the particular Measures assigned to various Nouns under 
the respective heads of the several Plurals do by no means 
restrict the Plurals of those Nouns to those particular Mea- 
sures only ; for it often happens, that a Noun has a Plural 
of Paucity as well as a Plural of Multitude. For instance, 

il "a boy"; JuUj "a loaf"; Jl' "the soul," given 



260 (n.) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR.. 



in the above Tables, formed their Plurals of Paucity, as 

O ^O O,, *V O *Ox 

JUic, 5ae,l, and ^^w', respectively; while each of those 

x O O 

Norms has at the same time a Plural of Multitude, ^LJc, 

O O? OO^ 

^tfli, , and i^~yiJ , also respectively. It will be sufficient for 
our purpose, therefore, to remember that this is the Mea- 
sure of the Plural of Paucity, and that, that of the Plural of 
Multitude ; while a Noun may form its Plural according to 
any one or both of them ; or, having any one or both forms 
of these Plurals, may at the same time have likewise a 

7? /.?*>* 

Plural of Plurals, <&*=?' j-*- , hereafter explained. 



1. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

PLURAL. SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES. 



PLURAL. 

00 / 



A bright-eyed 
damsel, 

Red colour, 
A lion, 
A she-camel, 
A fool, 



2. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

3' r > >.>, 

A book, 



A prophet, or 
messenger, 

An admonisher, 



A wheel, or The 
sky, 

O f f 

(^)&~~> A ship, 



2. 
J*3 3. 

4. 



ftJOOLu 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(HI) 261 



-! 
<% 

O x 



JJt3 ^j.s? Trouble, 

' | x 

I ' 

w_5 .^- Trade, or occupation, 

Ox 

L -^ Deceit, 



5. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

\'_ A student, or searcher 
after any thing, 



, 



< 

Ox X . 






I 



A Lord, or a descen- 
dant of Mohammad, 

Virtuous, 
Vicious, 



J 



0. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 
A judge, 



5" 






Brave, 



3. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

PLURAL. SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES 

O __ 

^ ,, f A portion of any thing,} _,.,, 

\^> s and also a chapter / 
' of the Koran, 

The last, 
A village, 
The beard, 

k Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

5' r 1 ' 2'.^ 

*& A tense, or person, \.T.V,J "1 

x 

^*J A benefit, 



4. 



Jii 2. 

O Ox 

J*3 3. 



262 (Mf) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



7. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

P PLUIUL. SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES. 

- _ _ _ 

3' * 



g .^ 

3 K 



A monkey, 
% A rider, 

" 

Ear-ring, 



L 

8. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

M> Q ,- f 

Perfect, 

Weak, or Infirm, 
Incessant rain, 
Unarmed, 

9. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



OOx 

JjtS 



3 - 



'?' 

JxJ\ 



5' 


*i 
JVg^- Ignorant, iV^^- 


a 
s 


Vs A merchant, r^*-* 




\\ji A Government V*V& 
agent, ^T 

j^ An infidel, ^^ 

^ ^ f O 

j*'^^- A servant, /OVi. 

*5 w ' O 

jj^y-i A thief, ^Lj ! 




puj A farmer, c. .\j 




j*^.^. A governor, .^fsssW 




^ M ? i 
u_>uj A deputy, i_/A\ 




, -* 1 , 
(JltXik Skilful, (j-^^- 




5 f 

,.i^-j A dweller, ,.iJ\-j 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(MO 263 



1 0. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



SIGNIFICATION. 



Measure 


*Ua. Great, 
2\, A servant, or 


O x 

I " 
x 


O.x 

y*j 2. 




slave, 


" 


\x 







0x0, 


OxO x 




*V^> A fawn, 


&JOui 


**** 3 ' 







xxx 


XXX 




"-r^J The neck, 

X 


&-JJ. 


&i*5 4 




O 


0x0? 


Ox ? 




(JV^- Pregnant, 


J^ 


J*3 5. 




J^ A camel, 


X X 

> 


O x x 

\Jt3 6- 




Q 


00? 


o o * 




T-*ej A spear, 


o 


J*j 7 - 




o 


J 


O 




** >u.i A wolf, 


s-^- 5 


\JtS 8. 




o 

lAiu A point, 


x- ? 

ftJAAJ 


Ox O >" 


V*i 


-i.S Generous, 


00 x, 

I-/ 


O x 




o 


x 


x 




.\(_v>- Cautious, 


j&S^ 


\jc3 11- 




i- Benevolent, or 


"*! 


O Ox 




s " x virtuous, 


-c* 1 


Jv- 




<_A\k- Thirsty, ( 


^U^ 


Jj'ilii 13- 







O * 


00? 




L^^ Hungry, 


a w- 


U U*3H. 




o 


Ox 


?.' ' 




/'tX> Ashamed, 
\ 


LWJ 


iu^l5. 




c_5Vsr Lean, 


$& 


&J&16. 







? x 


? x 




JW A man, 


!/ -^ 


Jxi IT. 




< 'w _ v A woman, 


x < 


Sixi is. 




s 


x 


X 




O 


5 


M 




-.1 -j A wolf, 


,jW.~>- 


ijjJjtS 19. 



264 (Ml*) 



PEBSIAN GRAMMAR. 



1 1. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



PLURAL. 



Os^ f 

& 

03 

e 

a 



SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. MEASURES. 

11 11 



Science, 



The heart, 

A turret, or Sign 
of the Zodiac, 

A male, 



A stone, 
A sleeper, 
A king, 



1 2. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

''u ' Black, or an 
Ethiopian, 

A loaf of bread, 



\ \ ' A Christian de- 
U'J votee, 



13. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

1. 
2. 
3. 



S 



>. 

s 
3 



. 



/..- 



A boy, or slave, * 

Fresh dates, 

A guest, 

Light, 

An infant, 



1 t 

JVsti 1. 



2. 
3. 

4. 



M 

... J) 'jft A fawn, 




PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



(no) 265 



1 4-. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



PLOBAL. 



SIGNIFICATION. 



SINGULAR. 

00 x 



Slain, 


J^ 9 J^ L 




w * w * 


Dead, 


C^X*> JjtJ 2. 




Q O 


Perishing, 


CL^VA \_c\j 3. 


Foolish, 


, S>\ . \Jt9^ 4. 



15. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

OB ' 

K^^'/'x-O - 

ll -^ A partridge, 
A civet-cat, 



16. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



2\j-Jj Noble, ^_ o J, -*-' 




'^- ' ^ ; 




5\js^ Well-bred, *--_.*;. 




. ,? o-j , 


O T ^ 


2\S ..Jj A partner, CLJo J> 




f , TO x 




2\JLs Poor, r'^* 




x ' O O x 




2u _i Stranger, i_ o . 

*^^ ' *^x^ 




x ^ Ox'J OxOx 


SUii^L A successor, XftjJ^ 3^Jot5 2. 


* x-? ^Ox ^Ox 


S 1 ^^^ Generous, ^"^ Vx5 3- 



2M 



266 (Ml) PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 

1 7. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 



PLURAL. SIGNIFICATION. 



MEASURES. 



Rich, 

A prophet, 

x 

_ Ox 

j*>\ A legatee, 

* Ox 

2UU A friend (of God), 
Acute, 
Wicked, 
Pious, 

A faithful friend, 
\ A beloved friend, 



OO 
& 

o o 



1. 



1 8, Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 

i_i. f i ^ \ ' x x 

^UJ Decision of law, J$'^!xj /li*3 1- 

b) 

S^ .'..' A bone behind 



O X 



A woman's name, (I^Oot-j jl*J ' 3. 

A virgin, ^tXt ?^ix3 4. 

Drunk, ^jds IM^*^ 5- 

TT x OQ^ 

Orphan, ^jjj ,V^*3 6. 

i ' \ .\ A widower ; also 
I- 4^ " a widow, 

1 9. Nouns which form their Plurals of Multitude 
Drunk, 
An unit; also an attri- 



3 - 



I Is- 



bute of the Deity, _j^ 

~ Ancient ; also an attri- 
bute of the Deity, 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. (P1 V ) 267 



OF THE PLURAL OF PLURALS, 
THE EXTREME BOUNDARY OF PLURALS, 

Of the origin and signification of this term, it will be suffi- 
cient for our present purpose to state, that the Arabs often 
form Plurals from Nouns already in the Plural Number ; as, 

0x0 , 199 0~-x 

iJua "a ship": First Plural, ^ ; Second Plural, ^la-. 
Ifj " & pillar": First Plural, jf; Second Plural, J,\); 
Third Plural, ^\) . &c. &c. 

The last of these, then, from which it is not allowable to 
form another Plural, goes by the above names. But the 
student is not to imagine that every Plural of this kind, that 
he meets with, is absolutely formed from another Plural ; for 
there are many Arabic Nouns, the Plurals of which are con- 
fined to the above form only, and, in reality, have no other 
Plurals. 

This class of Plurals comprises Seventeen Measures, 
according to the following table. 

SIGNIFICATION. SINGULAR. PLURAL. MEASURES. 



A claim, 4^,7 S^?^ L3 L 

i > ,- ^ 

Mankind, ^--^ - 3 ^ tj 2> 

* 



, ^ 

A book, letter, &c. &c. JV-j . .J^^-J j i)^^ Jt ' 3 ' 

Ox 

Precious stone, &c. &c. 

Regulation, CL^^* t "!Py' il^ c '' 5 ' 

Greater, J^^^' J$ ^^ 6 " 

Climate, jjj^ !j\ji lfi-Vi^ 7. 



268 (MA) 



PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



SIGNIFICATION. 

Object, 

A lamp, 

Experience, 

A picture, 

Eloquence, 

A sovereign, 

A register, 

Paper, 

A Kushmeerian, 

An Afghan, 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



[N.B. The Arabic words, with the Forms and Measures 
in which they appear under the various heads in this 
Appendix, have been chiefly taken from Baillie's Arabic 
Tables the most useful and correct compilation of the kind 
ever offered to Arabic Students in the English language. 

In the selection of them, however, I have felt it necessary 
to introduce some further explanations ; and to make such 
alterations in the arrangement and disposition of them as 
seemed to me proper and desirable. 

I only wish it had been more in accordance with the 
nature and the plan of this work to have availed myself 
more copiously of the use of this most valuable auxiliary.] 



PIIIXTED BY RICHAKD WATTS, CROWN COURT, TEMPI.!. BAR. 



&^*o 


Jo* dj^ 1 -T 3 * 


U 1 ^; 


Page 


Line Read Pane. Line 


Read 




~> '> 


0,T ? 


10 i. 


19 ; i ^J^L 1 16 ii 10 i 


s^iw 




T ^ 




O') x 


11 II 


O f <** JU Q__^ 


.. .. 11 II 


L_J> 




! 


O'Jx 




? o 






. . 




18 1* 10 I- 


? 




O 




\ 


.. 


.'. A 

L. ' ,. 


19 n 5 o 


, 


12 ii- 


7 v A^$L 


. . . . . . 


!r^ 






1 


O T 


lS ir 


2 r .AA 6 ^ 


>HL! 




" < 


O u. x 




O -" x O 






* . * 


3 A>J>IXMJ 


21 n 5 o 


r 


15 10 




2 r ^.^ ' " 


.... 8 * 


^ 




j 


O O " 





O Ox 

8 A /JlacWi 


44 ff 14 IK= 


j^JUA 




( 


a, s 




J*U, lift 116 7 v 


ui 









PK 

6329 

127 



Ibrahim, Muhammad 

A grammar of the Persian 
language 




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